175. Nutrition, Metabolism, Bioactivity

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175. Nutrition, Metabolism, Bioactivity

 

 

CATEGORY: Diet Nutrition Supplementation – 500 Courses

COURSE NUMBER: 175

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Syllabus

Preface xiii
Acknowledgements xv
1. Introduction to the Minerals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
1.1. Definition 1
1.2. A Brief History of Biological Minerals 2
1.3. Minerals and the Building Blocks of Life 4
1.4. Properties of Minerals Related to Function 7
1.5. Summary 13
1.6. References 13
1.7. Problems 13
2. Chemical Properties of Minerals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
2.1. Basic Quantum Theory Applied to Minerals 15
2.2. The First Transition Series Elements 19
2.3. Predicting Properties Based on Chemical
Structure Similarity 21
2.4. Summary 23
2.5. References 24
2.6. Problems 24
3. Biochemical Insights into Minerals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
3.1. The Fundamentals 27
3.2. Biochemical Properties of Minerals 28

3.3. Biochemical Functions of Minerals 29
3.4. Biomineralization 34
3.5. Summary 35
3.6. References 36
3.7. Problems 36
4. Bioavailability of Minerals in Foods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
4.1. Historical Perspective 39
4.2. The Fundamentals 40
4.3. Bioavailability of Food Minerals: Effects of Processing 41
4.4. Food Processing Strategies and Mineral Bioavailability 43
4.5. Reversing Minerals Loss by Biofortification 45
4.6. Mineral Biotechnology 45
4.7. Issues of Food Safety and Minerals 46
4.8. A Comparison of Minerals in Foods from Animals
and Plants 47
4.9. Summary 49
4.10. References 49
4.11. Problems 50
5. Nutritional Approaches to Minerals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
5.1. Dietary Reference Indexes as Guidelines 53
5.2. Assessing Mineral Status 54
5.3. Assessing Risk of Toxicity 63
5.4. Assessing Bioavailability 65
5.5. Summary 67
5.6. References 67
5.7. Problems 68
6. Intestinal Absorption of Minerals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
6.1. Overview 69
6.2. Digestion and Absorption of Minerals 70
6.3. Summary 79
6.4. Problems 80
7. Post-absorption Metabolism of Minerals . . . . . . . . . . 83
7.1. Plasma Minerals 83
7.2. Delivery of Minerals to Peripheral Cells 84
7.3. Intracellular Transport 90

Contents vii

7.4. Mineral Transport and Diseases 90
7.5. Summary 91
7.6. Problems 92
8. Mineral-Mineral Interactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93
8.1. Nature of the Interaction 93
8.2. Interactions Between Macrominerals 94
8.3. Interactions Between Microminerals 99
8.4. Summary 105
8.5. References 106
8.6. Problems 106
9. Minerals in the Brain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109
9.1. Summary of Functions 110
9.2. Zinc 110
9.3. Copper 114
9.4. Iron 116
9.5. Manganese 117
9.6. Specific Diseases with a Mineral Connection 119
9.7. Summary 121
9.8. References 121
9.9. Problems 121
10. Sodium, Chloride and Potassium . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123
10.1. History and Early Insights 123
10.2. Chemical Properties 124
10.3. Biochemical Properties 124
10.4. Nutritional Properties 128
10.5. Intestinal Absorption 129
10.6. Sodium and Hypertension 130
10.7. Summary 131
10.8. References 132
10.9. Problems 132
11. Calcium and Phosphorus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133
11.1. Calcium 133
11.2. Phosphorus 146
11.3. Summary 153
11.4. References 153
11.5. Problems 154

12. Magnesium . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157
12.1. History and Early Insights 157
12.2. Chemical Properties 158
12.3. Biochemical Properties 158
12.4. Nutritional Properties 159
12.5. Digestion and Absorption 161
12.6. Magnesium/Calcium Interactions 162
12.7. Magnesium Deficiency and Toxicity 164
12.8. Summary 165
12.9. References 166
12.10. Problems 166
13. Iron . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169
13.1. History and Early Insights 169
13.2. Chemical Properties 170
13.3. Biochemical Properties 171
13.4. Nutrition 172
13.5. Digestion and Absorption 175
13.6. Mechanism of Iron Absorption 176
13.7. Regulation of Iron Absorption 179
13.8. Metabolism and Assimilation 181
13.9. Regulation of Iron Metabolism at the
Genetic Level 182
13.10. Summary 183
13.11. References 184
13.12. Problems 184
14. Zinc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 187
14.1. History and Early Insights 187
14.2. Chemical Properties 188
14.3. Biochemical Properties 189
14.4. Nutrition 192
14.5. Digestion and Absorption 195
14.6. Zinc Metabolism 198
14.7. Zinc Deficiency 201
14.8. Summary 203
14.9. References 204
14.10. Problems 204

15. Copper . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 207
15.1. History and Early Insights 207
15.2. Chemical Properties 208
15.3. Biochemical Properties 209
15.4. Nutritional Properties 213
15.5. Absorption and Metabolism 214
15.6. Transport and Delivery to Cells 218
15.7. Intracellular Metabolism 218
15.8. Copper-Iron Interactions in Copper Metabolism 219
15.9. Assessing Copper Adequacy 219
15.10. Copper’s Link to Genetic Diseases 221
15.11. Summary 223
15.12. References 224
15.13. Problems 224
16. Manganese . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 227
16.1. History and Early Insights 227
16.2. Chemical Properties 228
16.3. Biochemical Properties 228
16.4. Nutrition 229
16.5. Digestion and Absorption 231
16.6. Post-Absorption Transport 232
16.7. Manganese Deficiency 233
16.8. Nutritionally Relevant Manganese Toxicity 235
16.9. Summary 235
16.10. References 236
16.11. Problems 236
17. Selenium and Sulfur . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 239
17.1. History and Early Insights 239
17.2. Chemical Properties 240
17.3. Biochemical Properties 240
17.4. Nutritional Properties of Selenium 245
17.5. Digestion, Absorption and Metabolism 249
17.6. Selenium Deficiency 252
17.7. Interplay Between Selenium and Vitamin E 256
17.8. Selenium Effects on Genetic Expression 257

17.9. Summary 258
17.10. References 258
17.11. Problems 259
18. Iodine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 261
18.1. History and Early Observations 261
18.2. Chemical Properties 262
18.3. Biochemical Properties 262
18.4. Nutrition 263
18.5. Digestion and Absorption 265
18.6. Transport and Uptake of Iodine 265
18.7. Synthesis of Thyroid Hormones 266
18.8. Transport and Uptake of Thyroid Hormones 269
18.9. Iodine Deficiency 269
18.10. Assessing Iodine Deficiency 270
18.11. Toxicity 271
18.12. Summary 272
18.13. References 272
18.14. Problems 272
19. Fluorine (fluoride) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 275
19.1. History and Early Developments 275
19.2. Chemical Properties 276
19.3. Biochemical Properties 276
19.4. Nutrition 279
19.5. Digestion and Absorption 280
19.6. Fluoride Toxicity 281
19.7. Summary 282
19.8. Reference 283
19.9. Problems 283
20. Chromium . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 285
20.1. History and Early Developments 285
20.2. Nutrition 287
20.3. Digestion, Absorption and Metabolism 289
20.4. Evidence for Essentiality 290
20.5. Chromium Toxicity 291
20.6. Chromium and Insulin Signaling 292
20.7. Summary 294
20.8. References 294
20.9. Problems 295
21. Cobalt and Molybdenum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 297
21.1. Cobalt 297
21.2. Molybdenum 305
21.3. References 312
21.4. Problems 312
22. Arsenic, Boron, Silicon, and Vanadium . . . . . . . . . . 315
22.1. Arsenic 315
22.2. Boron 322
22.3. Silicon 329
22.4. Vanadium 334
22.5. References 338
22.6. Problems 339
Answers to End of Chapter Problems 341
Index 361

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