170. Food Structures, Digestion & Health

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170. Food Structures, Digestion & Health



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List of Contributors xiii
Preface xvii

CHAPTER 1 Understanding Food Structures: The Colloid Science
Approach 3
Introduction 3
On Colloid Terminology in the Age of “Nano” 8
Essential Principles of Structure Formation and Stabilization 11
Some Specific Types of Food Emulsion Structuring 20
Multilayer Emulsions 20
Pickering Emulsions 23
Double Emulsions 26
Emulsion Gels 29
Aerated Emulsions 32
Relationship of Structure to Sensory Perception 34
Relationship of Structure to Digestion and Health 36
References 41
CHAPTER 2 Processing of Food Structures in the Gastrointestinal Tract
and Physiological Responses 51
Introduction 51
The Processes of Food Digestion 53
Oral Processing 54
Gastric Processing 55
Intestinal Processing 56
Food Matrix, Nutrient Bioavailability, and Physiological Responses 57
Starch 58
Lipids 59
Proteins 63
Ileal Brake 64
Case Studies 64
Behavior of Milk Lipids in the Gastrointestinal Tract 64
Behavior of Nut-Derived Lipids in the Gastrointestinal Tract 70
Conclusions 74
References 75

CHAPTER 3 The Basis of Structure in Dairy-Based Foods: Casein Micelles
and their Properties 83
Introduction 83
The Structure of the Casein Micelle 84
Modification of the Micellar Structure by Acidification 91
Renneting and Aggregation of Casein Micelles 94
Mixed Coagulation with Acid and Chymosin 95
Modification of the Casein Micelles by Heating 96
Ultra-High Pressure Treatment and the Structures of Micelles 98
Conclusion 99
Note Added in Proof 100
References 100
CHAPTER 4 The Milk Fat Globule Membrane: Structure, Methodology
for its Study, and Functionality 107
Introduction 108
Biological Origin and Current Status of Knowledge 108
Lipids in the MFGM 110
Proteins in the MFGM 112
MFGM and Health and Well-Being 113
Physiological Function 115
Technological Relevance 116
Current View of the MFGM Structure 116
Methodologies for Characterization 117
Structural Analysis and Role in Digestion 129
Concluding Remarks 133
References 134
CHAPTER 5 Exploring the Relationship between Fat Surface Area
and Lipid Digestibility 145
Introduction 145
The Relevance of the Colloidal State to Lipid Digestion 147
The Relationship between Surface Area and Digestibility
of Fats and Oils 149
Surface Area Effects Under Intestinal Conditions 150
Dynamics of Surface Area Effects During Digestion 154
Approaches for Controlling Surface Area During Digestion 157
Conclusions 164
References 165

CHAPTER 6 ProteinePolysaccharide Interactions and Digestion of
the Complex Particles 169
Introduction 169
Peculiarities of the Structural and Thermodynamic Parameters
of the Initial (“Before Digestion”) Ternary (PC þ SCN þ
Polysaccharide) Complex Particles, Formed by the Different
Kinds of ProteinePolysaccharide Interactions 173
Relationships between Structural Parameters of the Ternary
Complex Particles and their Functionality as Delivery
Vehicles for Polyunsaturated PC 182
Protection of the Polyunsaturated PC Against Oxidation 183
Targeted Release of PC Under Enzymatic Action in
the Gastrointestinal Tract (Either Stomach or Intestine)
In Vitro 183
Conclusions 189
Acknowledgments 189
References 189
CHAPTER 7 Muscle Structure and Digestive Enzyme Bioaccessibility
to Intracellular Compartments 193
Introduction 194
Physiology of Digestion 194
Tools for Digestion Studies 195
In Vivo Systems 195
In Vitro Systems 195
Methods for Assessing the Bioaccessibility of Digestive Enzymes 195
Muscle Composition and Structure 196
Effects of Processing on the Microstructure of Meat 199
Postmortem Changes in Muscle 199
Marination 202
Salting 202
Cooking 205
Consequences of Meat Processing on Bioaccessibility to Digestion
Juices and Digestibility Efficiency 207
Fresh Meat 208
Marinated Meat 211
Salted Meat 212
Cooked Meat 212
Process Interactions 214
Pepsin Bioaccessibility and Localization 215
Conclusions 217
References 217

CHAPTER 8 Cotyledon Cell Structure and In Vitro Starch Digestion in Navy Beans 223
Introduction 223
Microstructure of Raw and Cooked Whole Navy Beans,
Bean Flour, and Starch 225
In Vitro Digestion of Starch 227
Cooked Whole Navy Beans, Bean Flour, and Starch 227
Effects of Storage and Reheating of Cooked Navy Beans 232
Effects of High Pressure (French Press) Treatment
of Cooked Navy Beans 233
Microstructure of Navy Bean Digesta 238
Influence of Particle Size on Particle Size of Navy Bean Pastes 239
Conclusions 239
Acknowledgments 239
References 240
CHAPTER 9 Mathematical Models of Food Degradation in the Human Stomach 245
Introduction 245
Models of Fluid and Food Particle Flow in the Stomach 247
Empirical Models of Wet Mass Retention During Digestion 247
Empirical Modeling of Dry Solid Loss During Digestion 249
Modeling of the Dynamics of Stomach pH During Digestion 249
Models of the Transport of Gastric Fluid into Food Particles 250
The Effect of pH on the Transport of Gastric Fluid into
Food Particles 252
Model of Solid Loss Due to Food Particle Tenderization 252
Models of the Change in Temperature within Food Particles in the
Stomach 254
Models of Food Particle Erosion 257
Models of Stochastic Aspects of Food Particle Erosion 260
Models of the Role of Food Particle Geometry on Degradation 262
Models of Food Particle Fragmentation 263
Models of the Change in Food Particle Size Distribution within the
Stomach 263
Models of Gastric Emptying 266
Summary 268
References 270
CHAPTER 10 An Improved Understanding of Gut Function through High-Resolution

Mapping and Multiscale Computational Modeling of
the Gastrointestinal Tract 273
Introduction 274
The Cellular and Biophysical Basis of Gastrointestinal
Electrical Activity 274

Motivation for High-Resolution Mapping 275
Scope 276
Methods and Techniques of High-Resolution Electrical Mapping 276
Overview of High-Resolution Mapping 278
High-Resolution Mapping Hardware 278
Data Analysis Algorithms and Software Implementation 280
A Renewed Understanding of Gastrointestinal Activity through
High-Resolution Mapping 281
Gastric Slow Wave Activity 281
Small Intestine Slow Wave Activity 283
Gastrointestinal Slow Wave Re-Entry 286
Modeling Gastrointestinal Slow Wave Activity 287
Modeling Slow Waves as Self-Excitatory Oscillators 287
Biophysically-Based Slow Wave Models 288
Slow Wave Entrainment Model 289
Whole-Organ Slow Wave Activation Model 292
Electromechanical Coupling of Gastrointestinal Tissue 293
Conclusions and Future Directions 295
References 296
CHAPTER 11 Novel Approaches to Tracking the Breakdown and Modification
of Food Proteins through Digestion 303
Introduction 303
Protein Digestion 304
Bioactive and Allergen Release 304
Digestion Models 306
Evaluation of Protein ModificationdRedox Proteomics Approaches 307
Characterizing Protein Primary Structural Modification 307
Mapping Modification Profiles 308
Tracking Protein Truncation 310
Case Study: Lactoferrin 311
Future Directions 314
References 314
CHAPTER 12 Dynamics of Gastric Contents During DigestiondComputational
and Rheological Considerations 319
Introduction 320
Gastric Functions 321
In Vivo/Ex Vivo Assessment of Gastric Wall Functions 323
Gastric Flow DynamicsdBridging the Gap between Design
and Functional Benefits 323
Numerical Analysis of Gastric Flows 324
Computational Model of a Human Stomach 325

Gastric Geometry 325
Gastric Motility 327
Numerical Analysis of Gastric Flows 329
Modeling the Dynamics of Gastric Flows (Flow Model) 329
Overall Flow Behavior and Gastric Functions (Numerical Results) 331
Experimental Insight into the Performance of the Model 334
Mixing Dynamics of Distal Flows During Digestion 335
Numerical Characterization of Gastric Mixing (Methodology) 336
Dynamics of Gastric Mixing (Numerical Results) 337
The Dynamics of Discrete Food Particles During Digestion 345
Modeling the Dynamics of Discrete Food Particles 345
Dynamics and Fate of Discrete Food Particles (Numerical Results) 346
Dynamics of More Densely Packed Food Digesta Systems 351
Modeling the Dynamics of Granular Food Digesta Systems
(Methodology) 351
Dynamics of Granular Food Digesta Systems (Numerical Results) 353
Summary Remarks and Future Challenges 356
References 357



CHAPTER 13 Applying Structuring Approaches for Satiety: Challenges Faced,

Lessons Learned 363
Introduction 364
Satiety in Context 364
Satiation and Satiety Effects of Foods 366
Current Status of “Functional” Approaches to Satiety 367
Structuring Approaches to Enhancing Satiety Functionality in Foods 368
Fibers for Satiety 369
Lipid Structuring for Satiety 373
Feasibility Issues: From Laboratory to Market 378
Conclusions: Lessons Learned 381
References 383
CHAPTER 14 Technological Means to Modulate Food Digestion and Physiological
Response 389
Introduction 390
Modulation of Protein Digestion and Biological Responses 391
Impact of Protein Source, Composition, and Structure
on Protein Digestion Rate 391

Impact of Protein Microstructure 393
Modulation of Carbohydrate Digestion and Biological Response 398
Physiological Effects of Rapidly Digestible, Slowly Digestible,
and Resistant Starches 399
Impact of Structure on the Digestibility of Native Starch 401
Tuning Starch Structure Toward Promoting SDS Formation
through Different Technological Means 402
Modulation of Lipid Digestion and Biological Response 405
Impact of Emulsion Structure on Lipid Digestion 407
Emulsion Structuring During Digestion 411
Conclusions 414
References 415

CHAPTER 15 Describing Dietary EnergydTowards the Formulation of

Specialist Weight-Loss Foods 423
Introduction 423
Small- and Large-Bowel Digestion, Absorbed Nutrients
and Biochemical Efficiency of Adenosine Triphosphate
Production 425
Models of Digestion and Fermentation 427
Digestion 427
Fermentation 428
Dual Assay 428
Differential Efficiencies of Utilization of Absorbed Nutrients
for Energy (ATP) Supply 429
An Overall Model of Digestion and Post-Absorptive Nutrient
Utilization 429
Examples of Model Application 432
Conclusion 434
References 435

CHAPTER 16 Combined Phytosterol and Fish Oil Therapy for Lipid Lowering

and Cardiovascular Health 437
Introduction 437
Phytosterols 439
Structure and Derivatives 439
Natural Phytosterol Intake 440
Absorption and Metabolism 441
Mechanism of Action 442
Phytosterol-Enriched Foods, Dose, and Food Matrix 444
Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids 447
Structure, Biochemistry, and Dietary Sources 447
Mechanism of Action 448

Role in Eicosanoid Synthesis 449
Omega-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation and Human Health 450
Phytosterol and Omega-3 Combination Therapy 452
Concluding Remarks and Future Directions 454
References 455
CHAPTER 17 Dairy Materials as Delivery Tools for Bioactive Components in Dairy
Platforms 465
Introduction 465
Milk as a Delivery Platform of Bioactive Components 465
Milk Macromolecules, Structure, and Delivery Functions 467
Whey Proteins 468
Caseins 468
Milk Lipids 469
Milk Components During Digestion 470
Milk Protein Digestion and Bioactive Peptides 471
Fat Globule Digestion and Milk Fat Globule Membrane
Bioactivity 474
Milk Components as Delivery Systems 476
Milk Proteins Assemblies as Delivery Systems 476
Milk Phospholipid Liposomes 479
Conclusions and Outlook 480
References 481

CHAPTER 18 The Importance of Microbiota and Host Interactions

Throughout Life 489
Introduction 489
Microbiota and Host Interactions in Early Postnatal Life 491
Resilience of Microbiota and Host Interactions in Adults 495
Microbiota and Host Interactions During Aging 498
Concluding Remarks 502
References 504
Index 513



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