159. Enzymes In Human & Animal Nutrition

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159. Enzymes In Human & Animal Nutrition

 

 

CATEGORY: Diet Nutrition Supplementation – 500 Courses

COURSE NUMBER: 159

FEES: 555/- INR only

CERTIFICATE VALIDITY: Lifetime

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BOOKS/ MANUALS: Pages

Syllabus

List of Contributors ………………………………………………………xix
Preface …………………………………………………………………………xxi
Acknowledgments ………………………………………………….xxv
Introduction……………………………………………………………… xxvii
CHAPTER 1 Selection, engineering, and expression

of microbial enzymes ……………………………………………1
Patrı ́cia Poeta, Albino A. Dias, Gilberto Igrejas, Vanessa
Silva, Rui Bezerra and Carlos Simo ̃es Nunes
1.1 Introduction …………………………………………………………………………1
1.2 Principal Applications of Microbial Industrial Enzymes…………..2
1.3 Increased Utilization of Recombinant Enzymes ………………………9
1.4 Biomining for New and/or Improved Enzymes ……………………..10
1.5 Potential Role for Enzymes From Archaea (Extremozymes)…..15
1.6 Genetic Engineering of Enzymes …………………………………………18
1.7 Screening for Microbial Enzymes ………………………………………..19
1.8 Microbial Genomes …………………………………………………………….20
1.9 Metagenomic Screening and Functional Screening
of (Meta)Genomic Libraries ………………………………………………..20
1.10 Conclusions and Perspectives ………………………………………………25
References………………………………………………………………………… 25
CHAPTER 2 Intellectual property on selection, expression,
and production of enzymes …………………………………. 31
Carlos Simo ̃es Nunes
2.1 Introduction ……………………………………………………………………….31
2.2 Origins and History of Intellectual Property ………………………….33
2.3 Current Perspectives and Prospectives of Intellectual
Protection and Rights ………………………………………………………….34
2.4 Intellectual Property Law in the United States ………………………35
2.5 Ownership Rights……………………………………………………………….36
2.6 Global Intellectual Property…………………………………………………36
2.7 Patents……………………………………………………………………………….37
2.7.1 Protection by a Patent ………………………………………………. 37
2.8 Specific Aspects of Intellectual Property on Enzymes ……………38
2.9 Economic and Ethical Issues of Intellectual Property,
Debates, and Trends……………………………………………………………41

2.10 Copyright…………………………………………………………………………..43
2.11 Other Subjects on Intellectual Property…………………………………44
2.11.1 Industrial Design Rights …………………………………………. 44
2.11.2 Plant Varieties……………………………………………………….. 44
2.11.3 Trademarks……………………………………………………………. 45
2.11.4 Trade Secrets…………………………………………………………. 45
2.12 Moral Issues ………………………………………………………………………45
2.13 Infringements—Patents, Copyright, Trademark, etc……………….45
2.14 Conclusions ……………………………………………………………………….46
Acknowledgment ………………………………………………………………. 47
References………………………………………………………………………… 47

PART I PHYTASES
CHAPTER 3 General aspects of phytases ……………………………….. 53

Vikas Kumar and Amit K. Sinha
3.1 Introduction ……………………………………………………………………….53
3.2 Phytases …………………………………………………………………………….54
3.2.1 Background …………………………………………………………….. 54
3.2.2 Unit of Phytase Activity …………………………………………… 56
3.2.3 History of Phytases ………………………………………………….. 56
3.3 Classification of Phytases ……………………………………………………56
3.3.1 pH of Activity …………………………………………………………. 57
3.3.2 Site of Hydrolysis ……………………………………………………. 57
3.3.2.1 3-Phytases (EC 3.1.3.8) …………………………………57
3.3.2.2 5-Phytase (EC 3.1.3.72)…………………………………60
3.3.2.3 6-Phytases (EC 3.1.3.26) ……………………………….60
3.4 Sources of Phytases…………………………………………………………….60
3.4.1 Plant Phytases …………………………………………………………. 61
3.4.2 Microbial Phytases…………………………………………………… 61
3.4.3 Mucosal Phytase Derived From Small Intestine………….. 61
3.4.4 Gut Microfloral Phytases ………………………………………….. 63
3.4.4.1 Suitability of genetically modified phytases …….63
3.5 Application of Phytase ………………………………………………………..63
3.5.1 Phytases as Food Additives ………………………………………. 63
3.5.2 Phytases as Feed Additives……………………………………….. 64
3.5.3 Production of Plant Protein Isolates and
Concentrates……………………………………………………………. 64
3.5.4 Source of Myo-Inositol Phosphates……………………………. 65
3.6 Health Benefits of Phytases and Potential Concerns ………………65
3.7 Conclusion and Perspectives………………………………………………..67
Acknowledgment ………………………………………………………………. 67
References………………………………………………………………………… 67
CHAPTER 4 Phytase in animal feed……………………………………….. 73

Nicholas Romano and Vikas Kumar
4.1 Introduction ……………………………………………………………………….73
4.2 Factors Influencing Phytase Efficacy ……………………………………75
4.3 Efficacy of Dietary Phytase to Growth and Nutrient
Utilization in Animals…………………………………………………………77
4.4 Use of Phytase With Organic Acids……………………………………..80
4.5 Conclusions ……………………………………………………………………….81
References………………………………………………………………………… 82
CHAPTER 5 Perspectives of phytases in nutrition, biocatalysis,
and soil stabilization ………………………………………….. 89
Michele R. Spier, Maiteˆ Rodrigues, Luana Paludo and
Myriam L.M.N. Cerutti
5.1 Introduction ……………………………………………………………………….89
5.2 Nutrition ……………………………………………………………………………90
5.2.1 The Phytase Stake in Animal Nutrition ……………………… 90
5.2.2 The Use of Phytase in Animal’s Diet—A Promising
Alternative………………………………………………………………. 91
5.2.3 Implications for Human Nutrition ……………………………… 92
5.2.4 Perspectives…………………………………………………………….. 93
5.3 Biocatalysis………………………………………………………………………..94
5.4 Soil Stabilization ………………………………………………………………..95
5.4.1 Introduction …………………………………………………………….. 95
5.4.2 Influencing Factors ………………………………………………….. 98
5.4.3 Perspectives…………………………………………………………….. 98
Acknowledgment …………………………………………………………….. 100
References………………………………………………………………………. 100

PART II DEPOLYMERIZATING ENZYMES
CHAPTER 6 Depolymerizating enzymes—cellulases ……………… 107

Carlos Simo ̃es Nunes
6.1 Introduction ……………………………………………………………………..107
6.2 Cellulases…………………………………………………………………………107
6.3 Beta-Glucosidases …………………………………………………………….108
6.4 CelluloseLignin Complex ……………………………………………….110
6.5 Cellulosomes ……………………………………………………………………110
6.6 Cellulases From Extremophile Microorganisms …………………..113
6.7 Obtaining Bioactive Ingredients and “Nonclassical”
Uses of Cellulases …………………………………………………………….117
6.8 Hydrolysis of Cellulose in Humans and Animals …………………122
6.9 Cellulases as Feed Additives ……………………………………………..123
6.10 Perspectives for the Use of Cellulases in Food/Feed
Applications……………………………………………………………………..126
Acknowledgments …………………………………………………………… 126
References………………………………………………………………………. 126

CHAPTER 7 Laccases—properties and applications ……………… 133
Carlos Simo ̃es Nunes and Adinarayana Kunamneni
7.1 Introduction ……………………………………………………………………..133
7.2 Lignolytic Enzymes—Laccases ………………………………………….135
7.3 Selection, Production, and Properties of Laccases………………..140
7.4 Applications of Laccases …………………………………………………..144
7.4.1 Decontaminating Properties of Laccases and
Practical Applications …………………………………………….. 145
7.5 Synthesis of Bioactive Compounds by Laccases ………………….149
7.6 Food Applications of Laccases …………………………………………..150
7.7 Feed Applications of Laccases …………………………………………..152
7.8 Laccases and Valorization of Plant Biomass ……………………….153
7.9 Conclusions and Perspectives …………………………………………….154
References………………………………………………………………………. 154
CHAPTER 8 Amylases …………………………………………………………. 163

Shivendra Kumar and Srijit Chakravarty
8.1 The Importance of Carbohydrates and Amylase in Human
Nutrition ………………………………………………………………………….163
8.1.1 Amylases: Unity in Diversity ………………………………….. 165
8.1.2 Mode of Action……………………………………………………… 167
8.2 Amylases in Animal Nutrition……………………………………………169
8.2.1 Porcine Amylases…………………………………………………… 170
8.2.2 Amylases in Fish Nutrition……………………………………… 170
8.3 Conclusions ……………………………………………………………………..174
References………………………………………………………………………. 175

PART III NSP ENZYMES
CHAPTER 9 Nonstarch polysaccharide enzymes—general
aspects ……………………………………………………………. 183
Habte-Michael Habte-Tsion and Vikas Kumar
9.1 Introduction ……………………………………………………………………..183
9.2 Specific Target Components for NSP-Enzymes …………………..185
9.3 Classification of NSP-Enzymes ………………………………………….186
9.4 Cellulose Degrading NSP-Enzymes ……………………………………187
9.4.1 Cellulases ……………………………………………………………… 187
9.5 Noncellulosic Polymers Degrading NSP-Enzymes……………….190
9.5.1 Xylanases ……………………………………………………………. 190
9.5.2 β-Glucanases ……………………………………………………….. 191
9.5.3 β-Mananases………………………………………………………… 191
9.5.4 Pectic Polysaccharides Degrading NSP-Enzymes ……. 192
9.5.4.1 Pectinases …………………………………………………192
9.5.5 NSP-Enzymes Production……………………………………… 192
9.5.6 Physiobiochemical Aspects of NSP-Enzymes …………. 194
9.5.7 NSP-Enzymes for Industrial Purposes…………………….. 199
9.5.8 Cellulase in Biopolishing………………………………………. 200
9.5.9 Noncellulosic Polymers in Biopolishing …………………. 200
9.5.10 Pectic Polysaccharides in Biopolishing…………………… 200
9.5.11 NSP-Enzymatic Degradation Mechanism of NSPs…… 200
9.5.12 Disruption of Cell Wall Integrity …………………………… 200
9.5.13 Reduction of Digesta Viscosity ……………………………… 201
9.5.14 Effects on Bacterial Population ……………………………… 202
9.6 Conclusions and Perspectives …………………………………………….202
Acknowledgments …………………………………………………………… 203
References………………………………………………………………………. 203

CHAPTER 10 Depolymerizating enzymes in human food:

bakery, dairy products, and drinks…………………….. 211
Parisa Fallahi, Habte-Michael Habte-Tsion
and Waldemar Rossi
10.1 Introduction ……………………………………………………………………..211
10.2 Sources of Food Enzymes………………………………………………….212
10.3 Food Enzymes in the Baking Process …………………………………212
10.3.1 Hydrolyses…………………………………………………………… 218
10.3.1.1 Carbohydrate hydrolyses…………………………..218
10.3.1.2 Kinetic and activity of α-amylase ……………..221
10.3.2 Proteases……………………………………………………………… 221

12.2.1 Classification by Catalytic Type ……………………………. 258
12.2.2 Catalytic Mechanisms of Proteases ………………………… 258
12.2.2.1 Serine peptidases……………………………………..259
12.2.2.2 Threonine peptidases ……………………………….259
12.2.2.3 Cysteine peptidases………………………………….259
12.2.2.4 Aspartic peptidases ………………………………….259
12.2.2.5 Glutamic peptidases …………………………………259
12.2.2.6 Metallopeptidases…………………………………….259
12.2.3 Classification by Homology ………………………………….. 260
12.3 Occurrence of Proteases…………………………………………………….260
12.4 The Digestion of Food Protein …………………………………………..262
12.5 Technical Aspects …………………………………………………………….262
12.6 General Nutritional Aspects……………………………………………….264
References………………………………………………………………………. 264
CHAPTER 13 Proteases—human food ……………………………………. 267

Petra Philipps-Wiemann
13.1 Introduction ……………………………………………………………………..267
13.2 Proteases in Food Processing……………………………………………..267
13.3 Historical Use of Proteases ………………………………………………..268
13.4 Proteases in the Dairy Industry…………………………………………..268
13.5 Proteases in the Baking Industry ………………………………………..270
13.6 Proteases in Meat Processing……………………………………………..271
13.7 Proteases in Fish Processing ………………………………………………271
13.8 Manufacture of Soy Products……………………………………………..272
13.9 Proteases in Processing of Protein Hydrolysates…………………..273
13.10 Use of Proteases in Beer Brewing and Beer Stabilization……..273
13.11 Synthesis of Aspartame……………………………………………………..274
References………………………………………………………………………. 275
CHAPTER 14 Proteases—animal feed ……………………………………. 279

Petra Philipps-Wiemann
14.1 Proteases in Animal Feed ………………………………………………….279
14.2 Use of Proteases in Processing of Protein Hydrolysates
for Use in Animal Feed……………………………………………………..279
14.3 Application of Proteases in Animal Feed…………………………….281
14.3.1 Poultry ………………………………………………………………… 283
14.3.2 Swine………………………………………………………………….. 287
14.3.3 Ruminants……………………………………………………………. 288

14.3.4 Aquaculture …………………………………………………………. 290
14.3.5 Companion Animals …………………………………………….. 291
14.4 Environmental Aspects ……………………………………………………..291
References………………………………………………………………………. 292

PART V OTHER ENZYMES
CHAPTER 15 Enzymes as therapeutic agents………………………….. 301

Adinarayana Kunamneni, Christian Ogaugwu
and Diwakar Goli
15.1 Introduction ……………………………………………………………………..301
15.2 Enzyme Sources ……………………………………………………………….302
15.3 Enzyme Production …………………………………………………………..303
15.4 Therapeutic Applications …………………………………………………..303
15.5 Oncolytic Enzymes …………………………………………………………..303
15.5.1 Asparaginase ……………………………………………………….. 303
15.5.2 Other Oncolytic Enzymes……………………………………… 305
15.6 Enzymes as Debriding Agents……………………………………………305
15.7 Enzymes as Antiinflammatory Agents ………………………………..305
15.8 Enzymes as Thrombolytics ………………………………………………..306
15.9 Replacements for Metabolic Deficiencies ……………………………306
15.9.1 Enzymes as Digestive Aids …………………………………… 306
15.10 Superoxide Dismutase……………………………………………………….307
15.11 Oral and Inhalable Enzyme Therapies ………………………………..307
15.12 Enzyme-Replacement Therapy (ERT)…………………………………308
15.13 Enzymes as Nerve Agent Scavengers …………………………………308
15.14 Topical Enzyme Therapy for Skin Diseases ………………………..309
15.15 Enzymes in Infectious Diseases………………………………………….309
15.16 Future Prospects ……………………………………………………………….309
References………………………………………………………………………. 310

CHAPTER 16 Enzymes as direct decontaminating agents—
mycotoxins ………………………………………………………. 313
Manjunath Manubolu, Lavanya Goodla, Kavitha Pathakoti
and Kjell Malmlo ̈f
16.1 Introduction ……………………………………………………………………..313
16.1.1 Enzymes as Decontaminating Agents …………………….. 313
16.1.2 Enzyme Categories Based on Detoxification Nature… 314
16.1.2.1 Oxidoreductases ………………………………………314
16.1.2.2 Oxygenases……………………………………………..314
16.1.2.3 Peroxidases……………………………………………..315
16.1.2.4 Transaminases …………………………………………316
16.1.2.5 Hydrolases………………………………………………316
16.1.2.6 Lyases…………………………………………………….317
16.1.2.7 Isomerases ………………………………………………317
16.1.2.8 Ligases……………………………………………………317
16.2 Enzymes for Decontamination of Mycotoxins……………………..318
16.2.1 Mycotoxins Introduction……………………………………….. 318
16.2.2 Types of Mycotoxins and Their Decontamination
Process………………………………………………………………… 320
16.2.2.1 Aflatoxins……………………………………………….320
16.2.2.2 Ochratoxin………………………………………………321
16.2.2.3 Fumonisin……………………………………………….322
16.2.2.4 Deoxynivalenol ……………………………………….323
16.2.2.5 Zearalenone …………………………………………….323
16.3 Conclusion……………………………………………………………………….324
References………………………………………………………………………. 324
CHAPTER 17 Enzymatic decontamination of antimicrobials,
phenols, heavy metals, pesticides, polycyclic
aromatic hydrocarbons, dyes, and animal waste…. 331
Carlos Simo ̃es Nunes and Kjell Malmlo ̈f
17.1 Introduction ……………………………………………………………………..331
17.2 Antimicrobials ………………………………………………………………….334
17.3 Other Drugs ……………………………………………………………………..336
17.4 Phenols ……………………………………………………………………………336
17.5 Heavy Metals……………………………………………………………………340
17.6 Pesticides …………………………………………………………………………341
17.7 Dyes………………………………………………………………………………..346
17.8 Kraft and Lignin……………………………………………………………….350
17.9 Animal Waste Management……………………………………………….351
17.10 Conclusions and Perspectives …………………………………………….352
Acknowledgments …………………………………………………………… 353
References………………………………………………………………………. 353
CHAPTER 18 Chitinases………………………………………………………… 361
Carlos Simo ̃es Nunes and Petra Philipps-Wiemann
18.1 Introduction ……………………………………………………………………..361
18.2 Applications of Chitinases …………………………………………………364
18.3 Selection and Production of Chitinases ……………………………….364
18.4 Waste Management…………………………………………………………..365
18.5 Biocontrol Agents …………………………………………………………….367
18.6 Medical Applications and Biomarkers ………………………………..369
18.7 Other Applications ……………………………………………………………372
18.8 Allergy to Chitinases and LatexFruit Syndrome………………..372
18.9 Perspectives for Chitinases ………………………………………………..374
Acknowledgment …………………………………………………………….. 375
References………………………………………………………………………. 375

PART VI ENZYMES AND NEW OR ALTERNATIVE
FOOD- AND FEEDSTUFFS
CHAPTER 19 Alternative and new sources of feedstuffs ………….. 381

Nicholas Romano
19.1 Introduction ……………………………………………………………………..381
19.2 Feather Meal…………………………………………………………………….381
19.3 Insect Meals……………………………………………………………………..386
19.4 Algae and Seaweeds………………………………………………………….389
19.4.1 Feed Applications ………………………………………………… 389
19.4.2 Other Applications of Algae and Derivatives ………….. 391
19.4.3 Algae as Invasive Species……………………………………… 393
19.5 Nonedible Plant Biomass (Lignocellulose) ………………………….394
Acknowledgments …………………………………………………………… 395
References………………………………………………………………………. 396

CHAPTER 20 Tyrosinases—physiology, pathophysiology,

and applications ………………………………………………. 403
Carlos Simo ̃es Nunes and Kurt Vogel
20.1 Introduction ……………………………………………………………………..403
20.2 Physiological and Pathophysiological Roles of Tyrosinase……404
20.3 Applications of Tyrosinases……………………………………………….405
20.3.1 Tyrosinases—Food and Feed Applications……………… 406
20.3.2 Tyrosynases, Removal of Phenolic Compounds,
and Bioremediation………………………………………………. 407
20.3.3 Industrial Applications………………………………………….. 407
20.3.3.1 Tyrosinases and dye production ………………..408
20.3.3.2 Tyrosinases for medical applications …………408
20.3.3.3 Other applications of tyrosinases……………….409

20.4 Conclusions and Perspectives …………………………………………….409
References………………………………………………………………………. 409
CHAPTER 21 Probiotics and enzymes in the gastrointestinal
tract ………………………………………………………………… 413
Carlos Simo ̃es Nunes
21.1 Introduction ……………………………………………………………………..413
21.2 Beneficial Effects of Probiotics in Humans and Animals
and Variability of Results ………………………………………………….415
21.3 Issues on the Utilization of Probiotics…………………………………418
21.4 Market Size for Probiotics and Main Producers …………………..419
21.5 Safety Issues of Probiotics …………………………………………………421
21.6 Probiotics and Enzyme Activities in the GI Tract ………………..423
21.7 Conclusions ……………………………………………………………………..424
References………………………………………………………………………. 424
Further Reading ………………………………………………………………. 427
CHAPTER 22 Formulation of enzymes…………………………………….. 429
Carlos Simo ̃es Nunes and Petra Philipps-Wiemann
22.1 Introduction ……………………………………………………………………..429
22.2 Basis of Enzymes Formulation …………………………………………..429
22.3 Stabilization and Improved Resistance of Protein-Enzymes ….430
22.4 Nutritional Enzymes and Specific Requests of Formulation ….434
22.5 Buffers …………………………………………………………………………….437
22.6 Nanofibers ……………………………………………………………………….437
22.7 Gelatin, Microencapsulation, and Replacement ……………………438
22.8 Perspectives and Conclusion………………………………………………439
References………………………………………………………………………. 439
CHAPTER 23 Analytics of enzymes………………………………………… 441

Kurt Vogel
23.1 Introduction ……………………………………………………………………..441
23.2 Enzyme Activity and Definition of Enzyme Activity……………441
23.3 Enzyme Substrate and Its Influence on Analytics…………………442
23.4 Direct and Indirect Methods ………………………………………………443
23.5 Determination of Enzyme Activity in Formulated Products ….444
23.6 Sample Preparation …………………………………………………………..445
23.7 Enzyme Assay and Specificity of Enzyme Assays ……………….445
23.8 How to Overcome Interferences …………………………………………447

23.9 Determination of Enzyme Activity in Premixes …………………..453
23.10 Outlook ……………………………………………………………………………454
References………………………………………………………………………. 454
CHAPTER 24 Registration of food and feed additives (enzymes)
in the United States, Canada, and China…………….. 457
Carlos Simo ̃es Nunes, Adinarayana Kunamneni, Vikas Kumar
and Habte-Michael Habte-Tsion
24.1 Introduction ……………………………………………………………………..457
24.2 Regulatory Management for Feed Ingredients and
Additives in Some Big Countries ……………………………………….462
24.3 United States of America…………………………………………………..467
24.4 Canada …………………………………………………………………………….471
24.5 People’s Republic of China ……………………………………………….471
24.6 Conclusion and Future Perspectives ……………………………………478
References………………………………………………………………………. 480
CHAPTER 25 Evaluation of Enzymes for Animal Nutrition by the
EFSA in the European Union………………………………. 481
Guido Rychen and Herve ́ Toussaint
25.1 Introduction ……………………………………………………………………..481
25.2 Feed Additives………………………………………………………………….482
25.3 EFSA’s Role in the Evaluation of Feed Additives ……………….482
25.4 Evaluation of Enzymes for Animal Nutrition ………………………483
CHAPTER 26 Economics of food and feed enzymes:

Status and prospectives ……………………………………. 487
David Guerrand
26.1 Industrial Enzymes: A Global Market Overview………………….487
26.1.1 Global Enzyme Market, by Application …………………. 487
26.1.2 Global Enzyme Market, by Geography…………………… 488
26.1.3 Global Enzyme Market, by Enzyme
Functionality ……………………………………………………….. 488
26.1.4 Industrial Enzymes Production………………………………. 488
26.2 Economics of Food Processing Enzymes,
by Application ………………………………………………………………….490
26.2.1 Sugar and Starch ………………………………………………….. 490
26.2.1.1 Market structure and value chain ………………491
26.2.1.2 Key trends in starch and sugar enzymes …….491

26.2.2 Bakery ………………………………………………………………… 492
26.2.2.1 Baking enzymes pricing and cost-in-use…….493
26.2.2.2 Market structure and value chain ………………494
26.2.2.3 Key trends in baking enzymes…………………..494
26.2.3 Dairy…………………………………………………………………… 495
26.2.3.1 Dairy enzymes pricing and cost-in-use ………495
26.2.3.2 Market structure and value chain ………………496
26.2.3.3 Key trends in dairy enzymes …………………….496
26.2.4 Brewing ………………………………………………………………. 497
26.2.4.1 Brewing enzymes pricing and cost-in-use…..498
26.2.4.2 Market structure and value chain ………………499
26.2.4.3 Key trends in brewing enzymes ………………..499
26.2.5 Winemaking ………………………………………………………… 499
26.2.5.1 Wine enzymes pricing and cost-in-use……….500
26.2.5.2 Market structure and value chain ………………501
26.2.5.3 Key trends in wine enzymes……………………..501
26.2.6 Fruit and Vegetable Processing ……………………………… 501
26.2.6.1 Fruit-processing enzymes pricing
and cost-in-use ………………………………………..503
26.2.6.2 Market structure and value chain ………………503
26.2.6.3 Key trends in fruit and vegetable
processing enzymes………………………………….503
26.2.7 Proteins Processing With Enzymes ………………………… 504
26.2.7.1 Protein processing enzymes pricing and
cost-in-use ………………………………………………505
26.2.7.2 Market structure and value chain ………………506
26.2.7.3 Key trends in protein enzymes ………………….506
26.2.8 Oils and Fats and Other Food
Enzymes Applications ………………………………………….. 506
26.2.9 Other Food Applications of Enzymes Not
Reviewed in Detail……………………………………………….. 507
26.3 Economics of Feed Enzymes……………………………………………..507
26.3.1 Geographically the Feed Enzymes Market Is
Structured as Follows……………………………………………. 508
26.3.2 Economics of Feed Enzymes, by
Enzyme Category…………………………………………………. 509
26.3.2.1 Phytase …………………………………………………..509
26.3.2.2 Nonstarch polysaccharides enzymes ………….510
26.3.2.3 Proteases…………………………………………………510
26.3.3 Economics of Feed Enzymes, by Animal Category …. 510

26.3.3.1 Poultry ……………………………………………………511
26.3.3.2 Swine……………………………………………………..511
26.3.3.3 Ruminants……………………………………………….511
26.3.3.4 Aquaculture and others …………………………….512
26.3.3.5 Market structure and value chain ………………513
26.3.4 Key Trends in Feed Enzymes………………………………… 513
26.3.4.1 Geography ………………………………………………513
26.3.4.2 Animal categories ……………………………………513
26.3.4.3 Regulation and consumer awareness………….513
26.3.4.4 Research and development ……………………….514
26.4 Conclusion……………………………………………………………………….514
CHAPTER 27 General perspectives of enzymes, environment
preservation, and scarce natural resources—
conclusions ……………………………………………………… 515
Carlos Simo ̃es Nunes
27.1 Introduction ……………………………………………………………………..515
27.2 Economics of Industrial Enzymes ………………………………………515
27.3 Classification of Feed Enzymes………………………………………….516
27.4 Extremophile Organisms—Potential Sources for New
Industrials Enzymes ………………………………………………………….517
27.5 Enzymes With Proven Performance In Vitro,
Physiological and In Vivo Positive Effects—Phytases………….518
27.6 Enzymes Sharing In Vitro and In Vivo Positive and
Negative Effects—Chitinases …………………………………………….519
27.7 Lignocellulolytic Enzymes—Catalyzers With a Strong
Potential of Applications……………………………………………………520
Acknowledgments …………………………………………………………… 523
References………………………………………………………………………. 523
Further Reading ………………………………………………………………. 526
Index …………………………………………………………………………..527

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Medifit issues Lifetime validity certificates for all Online Courses provided. No need to renew the certificates every 2 or 3 years. All Courses Certificates of Medifit are having Lifetime Validity. No need to renew these certificates every 2 or 3 years.

 

What makes the certificates of Medifit to get it recognized Internationally?

Vast number of students applying for Job in international market of Fitness through Medifits Online Courses Certificates. And most importantly, the Medical standards maintained, helps to acquire jobs internationally. This gives very strong International acceptance to Certificates of Medifit Courses.

 

ABOUT MEDIFIT ACADEMY CERTIFICATION COURSE:

Medifit Education Online Academy is an innovative, digital and engaging education platform that delivers fast track accredited courses and skills development courses instantly online, with no time limits, enabling individuals to study anywhere and anytime. We are proud to offer international standard courses that have helped our students build their careers across the globe.

HOW DO MEDIFIT ONLINE CERTIFICATE COURSES HELP?

Short term Professional Courses International Standards courses Opens Global opportunities Career defining Courses Skill Development Programmes Knowledge in short span Learn at your own pace Certification of Completion Immediate Earning Opportunities Positive Social Impact Optimistic Psychological Benefits Improved Standard of Living Study from anywhere & anytime Very Economical Fees

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