156. Marin Equestrian Stables Plan

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156. Marin Equestrian Stables Plan

 

 

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EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
Purpose and Need for Action……………………………………………………………………………… ES-1
Project Objectives ………………………………………………………………………………………….. ES-1
Alternatives ………………………………………………………………………………………………….. ES-2
Alternative A: No Action ……………………………………………………………………………… ES-2
Elements Common to all Action Alternatives …………………………………………………….. ES-2
Alternative B: Enhanced Existing …………………………………………………………………… ES-3
Alternative C: Consolidated………………………………………………………………………….. ES-3
Alternative D: Dispersed and Expanded…………………………………………………………… ES-3
Preferred Alternative ………………………………………………………………………………….. ES-3
Environmentally Preferred Alternative …………………………………………………………….. ES-4
Impact Topics Analyzed …………………………………………………………………………………… ES-4
Environmental Review Process …………………………………………………………………………… ES-4
CHAPTER 1. PURPOSE AND NEED
1.1 Introduction and Background …………………………………………………………………………. 1-1
1.1.1 Introduction ………………………………………………………………………………………. 1-1
1.1.2 Background ……………………………………………………………………………………….. 1-2
1.1.3 Project Area ………………………………………………………………………………………. 1-3
1.1.3.1 Existing Stables ………………………………………………………………………… 1-3
1.1.3.2 Potential New Stables Sites ………………………………………………………….. 1-4
1.2 Purpose and Need ……………………………………………………………………………………… 1-5
1.2.1 Purpose of the Plan ……………………………………………………………………………… 1-5
1.2.2 Need for Action…………………………………………………………………………………… 1-6
1.3 Project Objectives ……………………………………………………………………………………….. 1-8
1.4 Scope of the Environmental Assessment ……………………………………………………………. 1-9
1.5 Summary of Laws, Regulations and Policies ……………………………………………………… 1-10
1.5.1 Park-Related Documents ……………………………………………………………………… 1-10
1.5.2 Other Federal Regulations, Laws and Policies …………………………………………….. 1-11
1.6 Scoping Process and Public Participation ………………………………………………………….. 1-12
1.7 Issues and Impact Topics ……………………………………………………………………………. 1-13
1.7.1 Natural Resources ……………………………………………………………………………… 1-13
1.7.2 Cultural Resources …………………………………………………………………………….. 1-14
1.7.3 Other Resource Topics ………………………………………………………………………… 1-14
1.8 Issues Eliminated from Further Consideration …………………………………………………… 1-15
CHAPTER 2. ALTERNATIVES
2.1 Introduction ………………………………………………………………………………………………. 2-1
2.2 Alternatives Development Process …………………………………………………………………… 2-1
2.2.1 Background ……………………………………………………………………………………….. 2-1
2.2.2 Alternatives Formulation ……………………………………………………………………….. 2-2
2.2.3 Preferred Alternative ……………………………………………………………………………. 2-3
2.3 Alternatives Description ………………………………………………………………………………… 2-4
2.3.1 Alternative A – No Action ………………………………………………………………………. 2-4
2.3.2 Elements Common to All Action Alternatives (B through D) …………………………….. 2-8
2.3.3 Alternative B – Enhanced Existing…………………………………………………………… 2-13
2.3.4 Alternative C – Consolidated …………………………………………………………………. 2-17
2.3.5 Alternative D – Dispersed and Expanded ………………………………………………….. 2-20
2.4 Alternatives Considered but Dismissed ……………………………………………………………. 2-22

Marin Equestrian Stables Plan EA iv October 2011
2.5 Environmentally Preferred Alternative …………………………………………………………….. 2-24
2.6 Summary of Alternative Actions ……………………………………………………………………. 2-25
2.7 Summary of Impacts and Mitigation ……………………………………………………………….. 2-25
CHAPTER 3. AFFECTED ENVIRONMENT
3.1 Geology and Soils ……………………………………………………………………………………….. 3-1
3.1.1 Geology ……………………………………………………………………………………………. 3-1
3.1.2 Soils ………………………………………………………………………………………………… 3-3
3.2 Water Quality …………………………………………………………………………………………….. 3-9
3.2.1 Watersheds ……………………………………………………………………………………….. 3-9
3.2.2 Regulatory Framework ………………………………………………………………………… 3-10
3.2.3 Physical and Basic Water Quality Parameters …………………………………………….. 3-12
3.2.3.1 Discharge………………………………………………………………………………. 3-12
3.2.3.2 Temperature ………………………………………………………………………….. 3-13
3.2.3.3 pH……………………………………………………………………………………….. 3-14
3.2.3.4 Total Dissolved Solids (TDS), Salinity, and Conductivity ……………………… 3-14
3.2.3.5 Total Suspended Solids (TSS) and Turbidity ……………………………………..3.15
3.2.4 Oxygen Related Parameters …………………………………………………………………. 3-15
3.2.4.1 Dissolved Oxygen…………………………………………………………………….. 3-15
3.2.4.2 Biochemical Oxygen Demand………………………………………………………. 3-16
3.2.5 Nutrients …………………………………………………………………………………………. 3-17
3.2.5.1 Nitrogen, Nitrate and Ammonia……………………………………………………. 3-17
3.2.5.2 Phosphorus, Phosphate, Total Phosphorous (TP) ………………………………. 3-17
3.2.6 Biological Indicators …………………………………………………………………………… 3-18
3.2.6.1 Total Coliform, Fecal Coliform Escherichia coli (E. coli) and enterococci…… 3-18
3.3 Vegetation ………………………………………………………………………………………………. 3-19
3.3.1 Coastal Shrub and Chaparral ………………………………………………………………… 3-19
3.3.2 Grasslands ………………………………………………………………………………………. 3-20
3.3.3 Native Hardwood Forest ………………………………………………………………………. 3-20
3.3.4 Non-native Evergreen Forest ………………………………………………………………… 3-20
3.3.5 Riparian and Wetland Vegetation……………………………………………………………. 3-22
3.4 Wildlife and Aquatic Resources ……………………………………………………………………… 3-23
3.4.1 Terrestrial Wildlife ……………………………………………………………………………… 3-23
3.4.2 Aquatic Species …………………………………………………………………………………. 3-25
3.5 Special Status Species ……………………………………………………………………………….. 3-25
3.5.1 State or Federally Listed Animal Species ………………………………………………….. 3-25
3.5.2 Other Special Status Animal Species……………………………………………………….. 3-28
3.5.3 Special Status Plants ………………………………………………………………………….. 3-29
3.6 Air Quality ………………………………………………………………………………………………. 3-30
3.7 Cultural Resources …………………………………………………………………………………….. 3-30
3.7.1 Cultural Resource Context for Project Area ……………………………………………….. 3-41
3.7.1.1 Pre-contact Archeology ……………………………………………………………… 3-41
3.7.1.2 Indigenous Context ………………………………………………………………….. 3-41
3.7.1.3 Historic Period ………………………………………………………………………… 3-41
3.7.2 Cultural Resources by Category …………………………………………………………….. 3-49
3.7.2.1 Archeological Resources…………………………………………………………….. 3-49
3.7.2.2 Cultural Landscapes …………………………………………………………………. 3-50
3.8 Visitor Experience ……………………………………………………………………………………… 3-52
3.8.1 Soundscape ……………………………………………………………………………………… 3-55
3.8.2 Universal Access ……………………………………………………………………………….. 3-56
3.9 Transportation …………………………………………………………………………………………. 3-56

Marin Equestrian Stables Plan EA v October 2011
3.9.1 Roadways and Traffic ………………………………………………………………………….. 3-56
3.9.2 Circulation ……………………………………………………………………………………….. 3-57
3.10 Visual Resources ……………………………………………………………………………………… 3-58
3.11 Park Operations ………………………………………………………………………………………. 3-59
3.11.1 Park Staff and Programs …………………………………………………………………….. 3-59
3.11.2 Infrastructure and Utilities ………………………………………………………………….. 3-60
Chapter 4. ENVIRONMENTAL CONSEQUENCES
4.1 Summary of Laws and Policies ……………………………………………………………………….. 4-1
4.2 General Analysis Methods ……………………………………………………………………………… 4-1
4.2.1 Assessment Methods ……………………………………………………………………………. 4-2
4.2.2 Type of Impact …………………………………………………………………………………… 4-2
4.2.3 Context and Duration …………………………………………………………………………… 4-2
4.2.4 Geographic Analysis Area ………………………………………………………………………. 4-2
4.2.5 Cumulative Impact Scenario …………………………………………………………………… 4-2
4.2.6 Impairment Analysis …………………………………………………………………………….. 4-5
4.3 Geology and Soils ……………………………………………………………………………………….. 4-6
4.3.1 Guiding Regulations and Policies ……………………………………………………………… 4-6
4.3.2 Assessment Methods ……………………………………………………………………………. 4-7
4.3.3 Impacts of Alternative A – No Action …………………………………………………………. 4-8
4.3.4 Impacts Common to All Action Alternatives (B through D) …………………………….. 4-10
4.3.5 Impacts of Alternative B – Enhanced Existing…………………………………………….. 4-12
4.3.6 Impacts of Alternative C – Consolidated …………………………………………………… 4-16
4.3.7 Impacts of Alternative D – Dispersed and Expanded…………………………………….. 4-20
4.3.8 Mitigation Measures ……………………………………………………………………………. 4-24
4.4 Water Resources ………………………………………………………………………………………. 4-25
4.4.1 Guiding Regulations and Policies ……………………………………………………………. 4-25
4.4.2 Assessment Methods ………………………………………………………………………….. 4-26
4.4.3 Impacts of Alternative A – No Action ……………………………………………………….. 4-27
4.4.4 Impacts Common to All Action Alternatives (B through D) …………………………….. 4-29
4.4.5 Impacts of Alternative B – Enhanced Existing…………………………………………….. 4-30
4.4.6 Impacts of Alternative C – Consolidated …………………………………………………… 4-34
4.4.7 Impacts of Alternative D – Dispersed and Expanded…………………………………….. 4-37
4.4.8 Mitigation Measures ……………………………………………………………………………. 4-40
4.5 Vegetation ………………………………………………………………………………………………. 4-42
4.5.1 Guiding Regulations and Policies ……………………………………………………………. 4-42
4.5.2 Assessment Methods ………………………………………………………………………….. 4-42
4.5.3 Impacts of Alternative A – No Action ……………………………………………………….. 4-42
4.5.4 Impacts Common to All Action Alternatives (B through D) …………………………….. 4-45
4.5.5 Impacts of Alternative B – Enhanced Existing…………………………………………….. 4-45
4.5.6 Impacts of Alternative C – Consolidated …………………………………………………… 4-47
4.5.7 Impacts of Alternative D – Dispersed and Expanded…………………………………….. 4-48
4.5.8 Mitigation Measures ……………………………………………………………………………. 4-49
4.6 Wildlife …………………………………………………………………………………………………… 4-50
4.6.1 Guiding Regulations and Policies ……………………………………………………………. 4-50
4.6.2 Assessment Methods ………………………………………………………………………….. 4-50
4.6.3 Impacts of Alternative A – No Action ……………………………………………………….. 4-52
4.6.4 Impacts Common to All Action Alternatives (B through D) …………………………….. 4-54
4.6.5 Impacts of Alternative B – Enhanced Existing…………………………………………….. 4-55
4.6.6 Impacts of Alternative C – Consolidated …………………………………………………… 4-56
4.6.7 Impacts of Alternative D – Dispersed and Expanded ……………………………………. 4-57

4.6.8 Mitigation Measures……………………………………………………………………………. 4-58
4.7 Special Status Species ……………………………………………………………………………….. 4-59
4.7.1 Guiding Regulations and Policies ……………………………………………………………. 4-59
4.7.2 Assessment Methods ………………………………………………………………………….. 4-60
4.7.3 Impacts of Alternative A – No Action ……………………………………………………….. 4-60
4.7.4 Impacts Common to All Action Alternatives (B through D) …………………………….. 4-63
4.7.5 Impacts of Alternative B – Enhanced Existing…………………………………………….. 4-63
4.7.6 Impacts of Alternative C – Consolidated …………………………………………………… 4-65
4.7.7 Impacts of Alternative D – Dispersed and Expanded ……………………………………. 4-66
4.7.8 Mitigation Measures ……………………………………………………………………………. 4-67
4.8 Air Quality ………………………………………………………………………………………………. 4-67
4.8.1 Guiding Regulations and Policies ……………………………………………………………. 4-67
4.8.2 Assessment Methods ………………………………………………………………………….. 4-67
4.8.3 Impacts of Alternative A – No Action ……………………………………………………….. 4-69
4.8.4 Impacts Common to All Action Alternatives (B through D) …………………………….. 4-70
4.8.5 Impacts of Alternative B – Enhanced Existing…………………………………………….. 4-71
4.8.6 Impacts of Alternative C – Consolidated …………………………………………………… 4-71
4.8.7 Impacts of Alternative D – Dispersed and Expanded ……………………………………. 4-72
4.9 Cultural Resources …………………………………………………………………………………….. 4-72
4.9.1 Guiding Regulations and Policies ……………………………………………………………. 4-72
4.9.2 Assessment Methods ………………………………………………………………………….. 4-75
4.9.3 Impacts of Alternative A – No Action ……………………………………………………….. 4-79
4.9.3.1 Cultural Landscape Resources……………………………………………………… 4-79
4.9.3.2 Archeological Resources…………………………………………………………….. 4-80
4.9.4 Impacts Common to All Action Alternatives (B through D) …………………………….. 4-81
4.9.4.1 Cultural Landscape Resources……………………………………………………… 4-82
4.9.4.2 Archeological Resources…………………………………………………………….. 4-86
4.9.5 Impacts of Alternative B – Enhanced Existing, Option 1………………………………… 4-87
4.9.5.1 Cultural Landscape Resources……………………………………………………… 4-89
4.9.5.2 Archeological Resources…………………………………………………………….. 4-90
4.9.5.3 Cumulative Impacts to Cultural Landscape and Archeological Resources …. 4-91
4.9.6 Impacts of Alternative B – Enhanced Existing, Option B2 ………………………………. 4-91
4.9.6.1 Cultural Landscape Resources……………………………………………………… 4-92
4.9.6.2 Archeological Resources…………………………………………………………….. 4-93
4.9.6.3 Cumulative Impacts to Cultural Landscape and Archeological Resources …. 4-94
4.9.7 Impacts of Alternative C – Consolidated …………………………………………………… 4-94
4.9.7.1 Cultural Landscape Resources……………………………………………………… 4-95
4.9.7.2 Archeological Resources…………………………………………………………….. 4-97
4.9.8 Impacts of Alternative D – Dispersed and Expanded ……………………………………. 4-98
4.9.8.1 Cultural Landscape Resources……………………………………………………… 4-99
4.9.8.2 Archeological Resources…………………………………………………………….4-100
4.9.9 Mitigation Measures …………………………………………………………………………… 4-102
4.10 Visitor Experience …………………………………………………………………………………… 4-104
4.10.1 Guiding Regulations and Policies………………………………………………………….. 4-104
4.10.2 Assessment Methods ……………………………………………………………………….. 4-104
4.10.3 Impacts of Alternative A – No Action ……………………………………………………..4-107
4.10.3.1 Construction …………………………………………………………………………4-107
4.10.3.2 Inside Equestrian Stables Permitted Areas…………………………………….4-107
4.10.3.3 Outside Equestrian Stables Permitted Areas…………………………………..4-107
4.10.3.4 Cumulative Impacts………………………………………………………………..4-108
4.10.3.5 Conclusions ………………………………………………………………………….4-108

4.10.4 Impacts Common to All Action Alternatives (B through D) …………………………..4-108
4.10.4.1 Construction …………………………………………………………………………4-108
4.10.4.2 Inside Equestrian Stables Permitted Areas…………………………………….4-110
4.10.4.3 Outside Equestrian Stables Permitted Areas…………………………………..4-110
4.10.4.4 Cumulative Impacts………………………………………………………………..4-111
4.10.4.5 Conclusions ………………………………………………………………………….4-111
4.10.5 Impacts of Alternative B – Enhanced Existing …………………………………………..4-111
4.10.6 Impacts of Alternative C – Consolidated………………………………………………….4-113
4.10.6.1 Construction …………………………………………………………………………4-114
4.10.6.2 Inside Equestrian Stables Permitted Areas…………………………………….4-114
4.10.6.3 Outside Equestrian Stables Permitted Areas…………………………………..4-114
4.10.6.4 Cumulative Impacts………………………………………………………………..4-114
4.10.6.5 Conclusions ………………………………………………………………………….4-114
4.10.7 Impacts of Alternative D – Dispersed and Expanded ………………………………….4-114
4.10.7.1 Construction …………………………………………………………………………4-115
4.10.7.2 Inside Equestrian Stables Permitted Areas…………………………………….4-115
4.10.7.3 Outside Equestrian Stables Permitted Areas…………………………………..4-115
4.10.7.4 Cumulative Impacts………………………………………………………………..4-116
4.10.7.5 Conclusions ………………………………………………………………………….4-116
4.10.8 Mitigation Measures ………………………………………………………………………….4-116
4.11 Transportation ………………………………………………………………………………………. 4-117
4.11.1 Guiding Regulations and Policies………………………………………………………….. 4-117
4.11.2 Assessment Methods ……………………………………………………………………….. 4-117
4.11.3 Impacts of Alternative A – No Action ……………………………………………………..4-118
4.11.4 Impacts Common to All Action Alternatives (B through D) …………………………..4-118
4.11.5 Impacts of Alternative B – Enhanced Existing …………………………………………..4-119
4.11.6 Impacts of Alternative C – Consolidated………………………………………………….4-120
4.11.7 Impacts of Alternative D – Dispersed and Expanded ………………………………….4-121
4.11.8 Mitigation Measures ………………………………………………………………………….4-122
4.12 Visual Resources …………………………………………………………………………………….. 4-123
4.12.1 Guiding Regulations and Policies………………………………………………………….. 4-123
4.12.2 Assessment Methods ……………………………………………………………………….. 4-123
4.12.3 Impacts of Alternative A – No Action ……………………………………………………..4-124
4.12.4 Impacts Common to All Action Alternatives (B through D) …………………………..4-125
4.10.5 Impacts of Alternative B1 – Enhanced Existing …………………………………………4-126
4.12.7 Impacts of Alternative C – Consolidated………………………………………………….4-130
4.12.8 Impacts of Alternative D – Dispersed and Expanded ………………………………….4-132
4.12.9 Mitigation Measures …………………………………………………………………………. 4-133
4.13 Park Operations ……………………………………………………………………………………… 4-147
4.13.1 Guiding Regulations and Policies………………………………………………………….. 4-147
4.13.2 Assessment Methods ……………………………………………………………………….. 4-147
4.13.3 Impacts of Alternative A – No Action ……………………………………………………..4-147
4.13.4 Impacts Common to All Action Alternatives (B through D) …………………………..4-147
4.13.4 Impacts of Alternative B – Enhanced Existing …………………………………………..4-148
4.13.6 Impacts of Alternative C – Consolidated………………………………………………….4-149
4.13.7 Impacts of Alternative D – Dispersed and Expanded ………………………………….4-150
4.13.8 Mitigation Measures ………………………………………………………………………….4-151

CHAPTER 5. CONSULTATION AND COORDINATION
5.1 Project Scoping ………………………………………………………………………………………….. 5-1
5.1.1 Internal Scoping …………………………………………………………………………………. 5-1
5.1.2 Public Scoping ……………………………………………………………………………………. 5-1
5.1.3 Agency Scoping ………………………………………………………………………………….. 5-2
5.2 Agency Consultation ……………………………………………………………………………………. 5-2
5.2.1 U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service …………………………………………………………………. 5-2
5.2.3 California Coastal Commission ………………………………………………………………… 5-3
5.2.4 California State Historic Preservation Officer and the Advisory Council on Historic
Preservation ………………………………………………………………………………………. 5-3
5.3 List of Environmental Assessment Preparers ………………………………………………………. 5-3
5.3.1 NPS Interdisciplinary Team…………………………………………………………………….. 5-3
5.4 List of Recipients ………………………………………………………………………………………… 5-4
5.4.1 Federal Agencies…………………………………………………………………………………. 5-4
5.4.2 State Agencies……………………………………………………………………………………. 5-5
5.4.3 Regional, County, and Municipal Agencies ………………………………………………….. 5-5
5.4.4 Libraries……………………………………………………………………………………………. 5-5
CHAPTER 6. REFERENCES…………………………………. 6-1

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