150. Physiological & Nutritional Factors

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150. Physiological & Nutritional Factors

 

 

CATEGORY: Diet Nutrition Supplementation – 500 Courses

COURSE NUMBER: 150

FEES: 555/- INR only

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BOOKS/ MANUALS: Pages

Syllabus

1 INTRODUCTION …………………………………………………………………………………………. 1
2 LITERATURE REVIEW ……………………………………………………………………………….. 3
2.1 Gastrointestinal Physiology and Digestive Microorganisms……………………. 3
2.2 Physiology of the Chicken Gastrointestinal Tract in Relation to Protein
Digestion………………………………………………………………………………………….. 5
2.2.1 Protein Digestion in the Crop………………………………………………….. 5
2.2.2 Protein Digestion in the Proventriculus and Gizzard………………….. 6
2.2.3 Protein Digestion in the Small Intestine……………………………………. 7
2.3 Implications of Reduced Acid Secretion by the Proventriculus on Protein
Digestion………………………………………………………………………………………….. 9
2.4 Methods of Improving Protein Digestion by Young Animals ……………….. 10
2.4.1 Nutrient Digestibility……………………………………………………………. 10
2.4.2 Diet Acid Binding Capacity………………………………………………….. 10
2.4.3 Diet Acidification………………………………………………………………… 11
2.5 Conclusions ……………………………………………………………………………………. 12
3 THE EFFECT OF AGE ON INTESTINAL PH OF THE BROILER CHICKEN…. 14
3.1 Abstract………………………………………………………………………………………….. 14
3.2 Introduction ……………………………………………………………………………………. 15
3.3 Materials and Methods …………………………………………………………………….. 16
3.3.1 Birds and Housing……………………………………………………………….. 16
3.3.2 Chemical Analysis……………………………………………………………….. 16
3.3.3 Intestinal pH Examination…………………………………………………….. 16
3.3.4 Design and Statistical Analysis……………………………………………… 19
3.4 Results …………………………………………………………………………………………… 19
3.5 Discussion………………………………………………………………………………………. 26
4 ILEAL AMINO ACID DIGESTIBILITY OF PROTEIN FEED INGREDIENTS AT
5 AND 21 DAYS OF AGE BY BROILER CHICKENS…………………………………………. 30
4.1 Abstract………………………………………………………………………………………….. 30
4.2 Introduction ……………………………………………………………………………………. 31
4.3 Materials and Methods …………………………………………………………………….. 33
4.3.1 Animals and Housing…………………………………………………………… 33
4.3.2 Dietary Treatments………………………………………………………………. 33
4.3.3 Data Collection……………………………………………………………………. 34
4.3.4 Chemical Analysis……………………………………………………………….. 34
4.3.5 Calculations………………………………………………………………………… 37
4.3.6 Design and Statistical Analysis……………………………………………… 37
4.4 Results …………………………………………………………………………………………… 37
4.5 Discussion………………………………………………………………………………………. 38

5 THE EFFECT OF FORMULATING DIETS BASED ON ACID BINDING
CAPACITY ON DIET ACID BINDING CAPACITY AND INTESTINAL PH OF
BROILER CHICKENS ………………………………………………………………………………………. 44
5.1 Abstract………………………………………………………………………………………….. 44
5.2 Introduction ……………………………………………………………………………………. 45
5.3 Materials and Methods …………………………………………………………………….. 47
5.3.1 Experiment 1. Acid Binding Capacity of Feed Ingredients ………. 47
5.3.1.1 Ingredient Samples ………………………………………………………… 47
5.3.1.2 Chemical Analysis …………………………………………………………. 48
5.3.1.3 Design and Statistical Analysis ……………………………………….. 48
5.3.2 Experiment 2. Effect of Formulating Broiler Diets Based on
Ingredient ABC on Diet pH and ABC and Broiler Intestinal pH… 48
5.3.2.1 Animals and Housing …………………………………………………….. 48
5.3.2.2 Dietary Treatments ………………………………………………………… 49
5.3.2.3 Data Collection ……………………………………………………………… 49
5.3.2.4 Chemical Analysis …………………………………………………………. 51
5.3.2.5 Design and Statistical Analysis ……………………………………….. 51
5.3.3 Experiment 3. Effect of Reducing Dietary Calcium in Broiler Diets
on Diet pH and ABC and Broiler Intestinal pH, Performance and
Bone Ash ……………………………………………………………………………. 51
5.3.3.1 Animals and Housing …………………………………………………….. 51
5.3.3.2 Dietary Treatments ………………………………………………………… 52
5.3.3.3 Data Collection ……………………………………………………………… 52
5.3.3.4 Design and Statistical Analysis ……………………………………….. 54
5.4 Results …………………………………………………………………………………………… 54
5.4.1 Experiment 1 ………………………………………………………………………. 54
5.4.2 Experiment 2 ………………………………………………………………………. 54
5.4.3 Experiment 3 ………………………………………………………………………. 58
5.5 Discussion………………………………………………………………………………………. 66
6 THE EFFECT OF HYDROCHLORIC ACID ON FEED AND INTESTINAL PH,
AMINO ACID DIGESTIBILITY AND BROILER PERFORMANCE WHILE
INITIATING LIGHTING PROGRAMS AT TWO AGES………………………………………. 69
6.1 Abstract………………………………………………………………………………………….. 69
6.2 Introduction ……………………………………………………………………………………. 70
6.3 Materials and Methods …………………………………………………………………….. 73
6.3.1 Experiment 1. Effect of Diet Acidification on Intestinal pH, Ileal
Amino Acid Digestibility and Performance: A Battery Experiment .
………………………………………………………………………………………….. 73
6.3.1.1 Animals and Housing …………………………………………………….. 73
6.3.1.2 Dietary Treatments ………………………………………………………… 74
6.3.1.3 Data Collection ……………………………………………………………… 74
6.3.1.4 Chemical Analysis …………………………………………………………. 76
6.3.1.5 Design and Statistical Analysis ……………………………………….. 77
6.3.2 Experiment 2. Effect of Diet Acidification and Lighting Program
on Broiler Performance and Meat Yield – A Production
Experiment. ………………………………………………………………………… 78

6.3.2.1 Animals and Housing …………………………………………………….. 78
6.3.2.2 Dietary Treatments ………………………………………………………… 78
6.3.2.3 Lighting Programs …………………………………………………………. 79
6.3.2.4 Data Collection ……………………………………………………………… 79
6.3.2.5 Chemical Analysis …………………………………………………………. 83
6.3.2.6 Design and Statistical Analysis ……………………………………….. 83
6.4 Results …………………………………………………………………………………………… 84
6.4.1 Dietary pH and ABC……………………………………………………………. 84
6.4.2 Gastrointestinal pH………………………………………………………………. 84
6.4.3 Nutrient Digestibility……………………………………………………………. 84
6.4.4 Broiler Performance …………………………………………………………….. 87
6.4.4.1 Body Weight and Body Weight Gain……………………………….. 87
6.4.4.2 Feed Intake and Feed Conversion Ratio……………………………. 92
6.4.4.3 Mortality ………………………………………………………………………. 94
6.4.4.4 Meat Yield ……………………………………………………………………. 99
6.5 Discussion………………………………………………………………………………………. 99
7 DISCUSSION……………………………………………………………………………………………. 107
8 REFERENCES ………………………………………………………………………………………….. 112

……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

 

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