131. Nutritional Supplements & Malnutrition

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131. Nutritional Supplements & Malnutrition

 

 

CATEGORY: Diet Nutrition Supplementation – 500 Courses

COURSE NUMBER: 131

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Syllabus

Introduction 3
Acknowledgements 4
Medical Nutrition International Industry (MNI) 5
Foreword 6
TABLE OF CONTENTS 10
How to use this document 12
Definition of terms 13
Abbreviations 16
Executive summary 17
Recommendations 19
SECTION 1 IDENTIFYING MALNUTRITION 20
Summary and recommendations 20
1.1 What is malnutrition and how is it measured? 22
1.2 What is nutritional risk and how is it measured? 23
SECTION 2 PREVALENCE OF MALNUTRITION 34
Summary and recommendations 34
2.1 Hospital 36
2.2 Community 45
SECTION 3 CAUSES OF MALNUTRITION 52
Summary and recommendations 52
3.1 Hospital 55
3.2 Community 57
SECTION 4 CONSEQUENCES OF MALNUTRITION 62
Summary and recommendations 62
4.1 Functional consequences 63
4.2 Clinical consequences 65
4.2.1 Mortality 65
4.2.2 Complications 67
4.3 Economic consequences 69
4.3.1 Healthcare resource use 69
4.3.2 Financial costs 75

SECTION 5 BENEFITS OF ONS 82
Summary and recommendations 82
5.1 Nutritional benefits of ONS 86
5.1.1 Nutritional intake 86
5.1.2 Nutritional status 92
5.2 Functional benefits of ONS 97
5.3 Clinical benefits of ONS 99
5.3.1 Mortality 99
5.3.2 Complications (including development of pressure ulcers) 101
5.4 Economic benefits of ONS 107
5.4.1 Healthcare resources 107
5.4.2 Cost savings 108
5.4.3 Cost effectiveness 112
SECTION 6 ONS IN KEY GUIDELINES 117
Summary and recommendations 117
6.1 Recommendations from international, national and professional
guidelines 119
6.2 Guidelines: From theory to practice for enhanced patient care 143
6.3 Guideline implementation: Benefits for patients and healthcare systems 149
SECTION 7 NUTRITIONAL CARE: GOOD PRACTICE EXAMPLES 157
Summary and recommendations 157
7.1 Examples of good practice 161
APPENDIX I PREVALENCE OF MALNUTRITION 168
Prevalence of malnutrition – Tables A1.1 to A1.8 168
APPENDIX II FUNCTIONAL BENEFITS OF ONS 210
Functional benefits of ONS – Table A2.1 210
APPENDIX III SUMMARY OF TRIALS 213
Setting, population, intervention and outcome – Tables A3.1 to A3.4 213
APPENDIX IV NUTRIENT CONTENT OF ONS vs TYPICAL FOOD SNACKS 233
Table A4.1 233
APPENDIX V SUMMARY OF TRIALS 234
Type, regimen and duration of ONS used – Tables A5.1 to A5.3 234
REFERENCE LIST 246

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