13. Non Medical Use

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13. Non Medical Use

 

 

CATEGORY: Anabolic Steroids 100 Courses

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Contents

SCIENTIFIC ENVIRONMENT …………………………………………………………………………………………… 3

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 4

ABBREVIATIONS …………………………………………………………………………………….. 5

ABSTRACT………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 7

LIST OF PAPERS ………………………………………………………………………. 10

CONTENTS …………………………………………………………………………………….. 11

  1. INTRODUCTION …………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 14

1.1 ANABOLIC-ANDROGENIC STEROIDS ………………………………………………………………………….. 14

1.2 HISTORY OF AAS ……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 14

1.3 MEDICAL USAGE OF AAS ………………………………………………………………………………………… 16

1.4 NONMEDICAL AAS USE …………………………………………………………………………………………… 16

1.4.1 Initiation ………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 16

1.4.2 Subpopulations ……………………………………………………………………………………………… 18

1.4.3 Modes of Administration ………………………………………………………………………………… 20

1.5 HARMFUL EFFECTS OF AAS USE ………………………………………………………………………………. 20

1.5.1 Harmful Physical Effects ……………………………………………………………………………….. 21

1.5.2 Harmful Psychosocial Effects …………………………………………………………………………. 22

1.5.3 Concomitant Effects ………………………………………………………………………………………. 24

1.5.4 Adolescent-Specific Effects …………………………………………………………………………….. 25

1.6 EPIDEMIOLOGY OF AAS USE ……………………………………………………………………………………. 25

1.7 AAS LEGISLATION ………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 27

1.8 THEORETICAL MODELS OF AAS USE …………………………………………………………………………. 29

1.8.1 Gateway Effect ……………………………………………………………………………………………… 29

1.8.2 Problem Behavior Theory ………………………………………………………………………………. 30

1.8.3 Stress Coping Model …………………………………………………………………………………….. 31

1.8.4 Social Learning/Cognitive Theory ………………………………………………………………….. 32

1.8.5 Health Belief Model ……………………………………………………………………………………… 33

1.8.6 Integrated Behavioral Model …………………………………………………………………………. 34

1.8.7 Implicit Personality Theory and the Five-Factor Model …………………………………….. 36

1.9 AIMS ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 37

1.9.1 Thesis Aims …………………………………………………………………………………………………. 37

1.9.2 Aims Study 1 ………………………………………………………………………………………………… 38

1.9.3 Aims Study 2 ………………………………………………………………………………………………… 38

1.9.4 Aims Study 3 ………………………………………………………………………………………………… 38

  1. METHOD ……………………………………………………………………………………………… 39

2.1 MEASURES ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 39

2.1.1 Measures Study 2 …………………………………………………………………………………………. 39

2.1.2 Measures Study 3 …………………………………………………………………………………………. 41

2.2 SAMPLES AND PROCEDURES …………………………………………………………………………………….. 42

2.2.1 Included Studies and Procedure Study 1 ………………………………………………………….. 42

2.2.2 Sample and Procedure Study 2 ………………………………………………………………………. 44

2.2.3 Sample and Procedure Study 3 ………………………………………………………………………. 45

2.3 STATISTICAL PROCEDURES ……………………………………………………………………………………… 46

2.3.1 Statistical Procedure Study 1 …………………………………………………………………………. 46

2.3.2 Statistical Procedure Study 2 …………………………………………………………………………. 47

2.3.3 Statistical Procedure Study 3 …………………………………………………………………………. 48

  1. RESULTS …………………………………………………………………………………….. 49

3.1 RESULTS STUDY 1 ………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 49

3.2 RESULTS STUDY 2 …………………………………………………………………………………………………… 50

3.3 RESULTS STUDY 3 …………………………………………………………………………………………………… 53

  1. DISCUSSION …………………………………………………………………………………………… 54

4.1 MAIN FINDINGS ……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 54

4.2 IMPLICATIONS ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 57

4.2.1 Implications for Practice ……………………………………………………………………………….. 57

4.2.2 Implications for Future Research ……………………………………………………………………. 59

4.3 STRENGTHS AND LIMITATIONS …………………………………………………………………………………. 60

4.3.1 Strengths ……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 60

4.3.2 Limitations …………………………………………………………………………………………………… 60

4.4 CONCLUSIONS ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 62

REFERENCES …………………………………………………………………………………. 63

APPENDIX A ……………………………………………………………………………………….. 89

Anabolic steroid non medical uses


Recent trends in the use, abuse, and diversion of steroids for nonmedical purposes illustrate a growing problem that not only imposes health risks but presents ethical dilemmas as well. Concern over the known adverse effects, the limited research into the long-term effects, and the ethics of engineering body size and performance through anabolic-androgenic steroid use has led to legislative, legal, and education responses. Increased penalties for distribution to minors and stricter controls in prescribing practices have been enacted through state legislation and federal initiatives. Government, some health professional organizations, and some sports groups have denounced the nonmedical use of anabolic-androgenic steroids and have developed materials to educate their members, other professionals, athletes, educators, and the public at large.


What are anabolic steroids?


Anabolic steroids are drugs that help the growth and repair of muscle tissue. They are synthetic hormones that imitate male sex hormones, specifically testosterone.


Anabolic steroids have some legitimate medical uses, including for treating hormonal issues in puberty, and to treat muscle loss caused by other diseases such as cancer and AIDS.


Some people use anabolic steroids for non-medical purposes, including to increase lean muscle mass andbuild strength and endurance, but only if used in conjunction with certain exercise and diet regimes.3 They can also help people reduce fat and recover quicker from injury.


Anabolic steroids are classed as performance and image enhancing drugs (PIEDs). These substances are taken by people with the intention of improving their physical appearance or enhancing their sporting performance.


Corticosteroids are a class of drug used to treat inflammatory arthritis and other inflammatory conditions such as asthma. They are commonly referred to as ‘steroids’, and people often believe them to be the same thing as anabolic steroids. It should be noted that these are different substances that act on different parts of the body.


How are they used?


Anabolic steroids can be injected or taken as a tablet.


Ever wondered how those bulky weight lifters got so big? While some may have gotten their muscles through a strict regimen of weight-lifting and diet, others may have gotten that way through the illegal use of steroids.
Steroids are synthetic substances similar to the male sex hormone testosterone. They do have legitimate medical uses. Sometimes doctors prescribe anabolic steroids to help people with certain kinds of anemia and men who don’t produce enough testosterone on their own. Doctors also prescribe a different kind of steroid, called corticosteroids, to reduce swelling. Corticosteroids are not anabolic steroids and do not have the same harmful effects.


But doctors never prescribe anabolic steroids to young, healthy people to help them build muscles. Without a prescription from a doctor, steroids are illegal.


There are many different kinds of steroids. Here’s a list of some of the most common anabolic steroids taken today: anadrol, oxandrin, dianabol, winstrol, deca-durabolin, and equipoise.


What Are the Common Street Names?


Slang words for steroids are hard to find. Most people just say steroids. On the street, steroids may be called roids or juice. The scientific name for this class of drugs is anabolic-androgenic steroids. Anabolic refers to muscle-building. Androgenic refers to increased male characteristics. But even scientists shorten it to anabolic steroids.


How Are They Used?


Some steroid users pop pills. Others use hypodermic needles to inject steroids directly into muscles. When users take more and more of a drug over and over again, they are called “abusers.” Abusers have been known to take doses 10 to 100 times higher than the amount prescribed for medical reasons by a doctor.


Many steroid users take two or more kinds of steroids at once. Called stacking, this way of taking steroids is supposed to get users bigger faster. Some abusers pyramid their doses in 6-12-week cycles. At the beginning of the cycle, the steroid user starts with low doses and slowly increases to higher doses. In the second half of the cycle, they gradually decrease the amount of steroids. Neither of these methods has been proven to work.


How Many Teens Use Them?


Most teens are smart and stay away from steroids. As part of a 2002 NIDA-funded study, teens were asked if they ever tried steroids-even once. Only 2.5% of 8th graders ever tried steroids; only 3.5% of 10th graders; and 4% of 12th graders.


What Are the Common Effects?


Steroids can make pimples pop up and hair fall out. They can make guys grow breasts and girls grow beards. Steroids can cause livers to grow tumors and hearts to clog up. They can even send users on violent, angry rampages. In other words, steroids throw a body way out of whack. Steroids do make users bulk up, but the health risks are high. It’s true, on steroids biceps bulge; abs ripple; and quads balloon. But that’s just on the outside. Steroid users may be very pleased when they flex in the mirror, but they may create problems on the inside. These problems may hurt them the rest of their lives. As a matter of fact steroid use can shorten their lives.


Steroids Cause Hormone Imbalances


For teens, hormone balance is important. Hormones are involved in the development of a girl’s feminine traits and a boy’s masculine traits. When someone abuses steroids, gender mix-ups happen.


Using steroids, guys can experience shrunken testicles and reduced sperm count. They can also end up with breasts, a condition called gynecomastia.


Using steroids, girls can become more masculine. Their voices deepen. They grow excessive body hair. Their breast size decreases.


Teens at Risk for Stunted Growth


Teens who abuse steroids before the typical adolescent growth spurt risk staying short and never reaching their full adult height. Why? Because the body is programmed to stop growing after puberty. When hormone levels reach a certain point, the body thinks it’s already gone through puberty. So, bones get the message to stop growing way too soon.


Steroid Abuse Can Be Fatal


When steroids get into the body, they go to different organs and muscles. Steroids affect individual cells and make them create proteins. These proteins spell trouble.


The liver, for example, can grow tumors and develop cancer. Steroid abusers may also develop a rare condition called peliosis hepatis in which blood-filled cysts crop up on the liver. Both the tumors and cysts can rupture and cause internal bleeding.

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