122. Dietary Reference Intakes For Water

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122. Dietary Reference Intakes For Water



CATEGORY: Diet Nutrition Supplementation – 500 Courses


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Summary 1
1 introduction to dietary reference
Intakes 21
What are dietary reference intakes?, 21
Categories of dietary reference intakes, 22
Parameters for dietary reference intakes, 29
Summary, 35
References, 35
2 overview and methods 37
Summary, 37
Background, 37
Methodological considerations, 38
Estimates of nutrient intake, 46
Dietary intakes in the united states and canada, 47
References, 48
3 a model for the development of
Tolerable upper intake levels 50
Background, 50
A model for the derivation of tolerable upper
Intake levels, 52
Risk assessment and food safety, 52
Application of the risk assessment model
To nutrients, 57

Steps in the development of the tolerable upper
Intake level, 61
Intake assessment, 70
Risk characterization, 70
References, 72
4 water 73
Summary, 73
Background information, 74
Body water, 75
Methods for estimating water requirements, 86
Methods for estimating hydration status, 90
Factors affecting water requirements, 127
Findings by life stage and gender group, 140
Intake of water, 157
Adverse effects of over consumption, 161
Research recommendations, 165
References, 166
5 potassium 186
Summary, 186
Background information, 188
Indicators considered for estimating the requirement
For potassium, 190
Factors affecting potassium requirements, 225
Findings by life stage and gender group, 231
Intake of potassium, 242
Adverse effects of overconsumption, 247
Research recommendations, 254
References, 255
6 sodium and chloride 269
Summary, 269
Background information, 272
Indicators considered for estimating the requirements
For sodium and chloride, 275
Factors affecting sodium and chloride requirements, 293
Findings by life stage and gender group, 301
Intake of sodium, 318
Adverse effects of overconsumption, 323
Research recommendations, 395
References, 397

7 sulfate 424
Summary, 424
Background information, 425
Indicators considered for estimating the requirement
For sulfate, 429
Factors affecting sulfate requirements, 429
Findings by life stage and gender group, 430
Intake of sulfate, 430
Adverse effects of overconsumption, 433
Research recommendations, 443
References, 443
8 applications of dietary reference intakes
For electrolytes and water 449
Overview, 449
Assessing nutrient intakes of individuals, 450
Assessing nutrient intakes of groups, 453
Planning nutrient intakes of individuals, 455
Planning nutrient intakes of groups, 456
Nutrient-specific considerations, 456
Summary, 461
References, 462
9 a research agenda 465
Approach, 465
Major knowledge gaps, 466
The research agenda, 468
A glossary and acronyms 471
B origin and framework of the development of dietary
Reference intakes 477
C predictions of daily water and sodium requirements 485
D u.S. Dietary intake data from the third national
Health and nutrition examination survey, 1988–1994 494
E u.S. Dietary intake data for water and weaning
Foods from the continuing survey of food intakes
By individuals, 1994–1996, 1998 518
F canadian dietary intake data for adults from
Ten provinces, 1990–1997 527
G u.S. Water intake and serum osmolality data from
The third national health and nutrition examination
Survey, 1988–1994 534

H u.S. Total water intake data by frequency of leisure time
Activity from the third national health and nutrition
Examination survey, 1988–1994 537
I dose-response effects of sodium intake on
Blood pressure 546
J u.S. Serum electrolyte concentration data from the
Third national health and nutrition examination
Survey, 1988–1994 558
K options for dealing with uncertainties 564
L acknowledgments 569
M biographical sketches of panel members 572
Index 577
Summary tables, dietary reference intakes
Recommended intakes for individuals, vitamins 606
Recommended intakes for individuals, elements 608
Recommended intakes for individuals, total water and
Macronutrients 610
Acceptable macronutrient distribution ranges 611
Additional macronutrient recommendations 611
Tolerable upper intake levels (ul), vitamins 612
Tolerable upper intake levels (ul), elements 614
Estimated average requirements for groups 616



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