115. Self-Help In Mental Health: A Critical Review

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115. Self-Help In Mental Health: A Critical Review

 

 

CATEGORY:Alternative Medicines 300 Courses

COURSE NUMBER: 115

FEES: 555/- INR only

CERTIFICATE VALIDITY: Lifetime

CERTIFICATES DELIVERY: In 48 hours

BOOKS/ MANUALS: Pages

Syllabus

Part I Introduction to the Field of Self-help in Mental Health
1 What Constitutes Self-Help in Mental Health and What
Can Be Done to Improve It? ………………… 3
The Meaning of Self-Help ………………….. 6
Mental Health as a Condition . . . ……………… 8
Mental Health as a Discipline and How to Improve It . . . . . . . . . 9
Health Promotion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Novel Delivery Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Working at a Distance from Participants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
Homework Assignments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
Promotion of Physical Health . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
Nutrition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
Primary Non-verbal Approaches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
Secondary Relational Approaches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
Tertiary Multi-relational Approaches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
Prevention of Mental Illness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
Psychotherapy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
Rehabilitation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
How Is SH Different from Promotion, Prevention,
Psychotherapy, and Rehabilitation? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
Importance of Structure and Replicability in Self-Help . . . . . . . . 30
An Experimental Checklist to Evaluate MH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
Concluding Remarks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
2 The Self-Help Movement in Mental Health: From
Passivity to Interactivity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
The Passive–Active–Interactive Dimension in Self-Help . . . . . . . 36
From Passivity to Activity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
From Activity to Interactivity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
Growth in the Use of the Homework Assignments in MH . . . . . . . 39
Low-Cost Approaches to Promote Physical and MH . . . . . . . . . 40

Toward a Technology for MH Interventions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
Implications of Recent Advances for MH Interventions . . . . . . . . 42
Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
Part II Self-Support Approaches: Initiated, Guided,
Maintained, and Monitored by Professionals (for Participants)
3 Distance Writing: Helping without Seeing Participants . . . . . . 47
A Classification of Distance Writing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
Open-Ended Diaries, Journals, and Personal Information . . . . . . 48
Focused Autobiographies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
Expressive Writing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
Programmed Writing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
Dictionary-Assisted Writing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
The Importance and Dangers of Addressing
Hurt Feelings in Writing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
Rationale for the Usefulness of DW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
Discussion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
4 Bibliotherapy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
Integrating Bibliotherapy with Treatment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
Bibliotherapy for Anxiety Disorders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
Bibliotherapy for Depression . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
Bibliotherapy for Childhood Disorders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
Bibliotherapy for Eating Disorders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
Bibliotherapy for Sexual Dysfunctions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
Bibliotherapy for Insomnia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
Bibliotherapy for Problem Drinking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
Bibliotherapy for Smoking Cessation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
Bibliotherapy for Weight Loss . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
Bibliotherapy for Diabetes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
Bibliotherapy in Primary Care . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74
Discussion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
Concluding Remarks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
5 Online Support Groups and Therapy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
Telemedicine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
Child and Adolescent Telepsychiatry Service (CATS) . . . . . . . 81
Telemental Healthcare for Military Populations . . . . . . . . . . . 82
Telemedicine for Depression and OCD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
Online Support Groups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
Internet Support for Eating Disorders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
Internet Support for Anxiety Disorders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84

Internet Support for Depression . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
Internet Support for Depression, Anxiety,
and Work-Related Stress . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
Internet Support for Problem Drinking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
Internet Support for Miscellaneous Mental Health
and Medical Issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
An Innovative Use of Online Technology in Mental Health . . . . . . 89
Quality Assurance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92
Conclusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93
Various Web-Based Self-Help and Informational Resources . . . . . 95
Resources for Alcoholism, Problem Drinking, and
Substance Abuse and Dependence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
Resources for Anxiety Disorders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
Resources for Bipolar Disorders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96
Resources for Cognitive Disorders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
Resources for Depression . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
Resources for Eating Disorders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98
Resources for Personality Disorders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98
Resources for Schizophrenia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98
Resources for Suicide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99
6 Manuals for Practitioners . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101
Brief Description of Selected Empirically Supported
Treatment Manuals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102
Additional Manuals for Empirically Supported Treatments . . . . . . 106
The Argument for and Against Treatment Manuals . . . . . . . . . . 107
Manuals are Useful Clinical Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107
Manuals are Problematic and Limiting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108
The Present Status of Manualized Treatments . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110
A Uniquely Formulated Treatment Manual . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111
Prescriptive Psychotherapy (PT) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112
Concluding Remarks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114
Part III Self-Help and Self-Change Approaches for Specific
Conditions: Initiated, Administered, Guided,
Maintained, and Monitored by Professionals
7 Anxiety Disorders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119
Self-Administered Treatments for Anxiety . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119
Shyness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121
Workbooks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121
Treating Social Phobia at a Distance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124
Virtual Reality Therapy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124
Specific Phobias . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125
Self-Administered Treatments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125
Predominantly SH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126

Minimal Contact Treatments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127
Panic Disorder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128
SA Treatment for Panic Disorder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129
PSH Treatments for Panic Disorder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129
MC Treatments for Panic Disorder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129
Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130
SA treatments for OCD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130
PSH Treatments for OCD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131
MC Treatments for OCD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131
PTA Treatments for OCD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131
Generalized Anxiety Disorder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132
Social Phobia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132
Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132
A Naturalistic Design Investigation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134
Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135
Available Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135
Associations and Agencies and Web Sites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135
Books . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136
Support Groups and Hotlines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136
8 Mood Disorders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137
Self-Help for Depression . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139
Self-Administered Treatments for Depression . . . . . . . . . . . 139
Bibliotherapy as Self-Help Treatment for Depression . . . . . . . . 141
Computer-Administered Treatments for Depression . . . . . . . . 144
Bipolar Disorder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145
Medical Co-morbidity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145
Discussion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146
Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147
Self-Help Resources for Mood Disorders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147
Associations and Agencies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147
Books . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147
Support Groups and Hotlines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148
Video and Audio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148
Web Sites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148
9 Eating Disorders: Anorexia, Bulimia, and Obesity . . . . . . . . . 149
The Importance of Diets in Eating Disorders . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152
The Importance of Exercise in Eating Disorders . . . . . . . . . . . . 153
Anorexia Nervosa . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154
Binge Eating Behavior . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157
Body-Image Disturbances . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159
Bulimia Nervosa . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 160

Obesity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163
Prevention and Treatment of Overweight Children
and Their Families . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166
Night-Eating Syndrome . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167
Concluding Remarks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168
10 Addictive Behaviors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173
Destructive Addictive Behaviors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175
Alcohol Abuse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175
Spontaneous Recovery from Problem Drinking . . . . . . . . . . . 176
Mutual SH Groups for Problem Drinking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177
General Substance Abuse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181
Methamphetamine/Amphetamine Abuse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182
Cocaine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182
Spontaneous Recovery from General Substance Abuse . . . . . . . 183
Self-Help Groups for Substance Abuse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183
Tobacco Abuse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 185
Spontaneous Recovery from Tobacco Abuse . . . . . . . . . . . . 187
Domestic Violence and Crime . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 187
Spontaneous Recovery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 189
Sexual Abuses and Offenses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190
Sex Addiction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191
Socially Based Addictive Behaviors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191
Codependency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192
Excessive Spending . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 193
Gambling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 193
Spontaneous Recovery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 194
Interpersonal and Love Relationships . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195
Spontaneous Recovery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 196
Religious Fanaticism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 196
Spontaneous Remission . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197
Workaholism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197
Spontaneous Remission . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 198
Concluding Remarks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 198
Additional Self-Help Resources for Addictions . . . . . . . . . . . . 199
Alcohol and Substance Abuse Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 199
Smoking Cessation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 199
Excessive Exercise . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 200
Excessive Spending . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 200
Compulsive Gambling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 200
Interpersonal and Love Relationships . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 200
Workaholics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 200
Sex Addiction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201
Domestic Violence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201

11 Personality Disorders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203
Self-Help Treatment for Personality Disorders . . . . . . . . . . . . 204
Treatment Utilization and Response . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 204
Borderline Inpatients . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 206
Manualized Supportive-Expressive Psychotherapy . . . . . . . . . 207
Dialectical Behavior Therapy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 207
Modified Forms of DBT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 208
DBT for PPD and OCPD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 208
DBT for Adolescents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 209
DBT for Opioid Dependency Among Women Diagnosed
with BPD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 210
Guided Self-Help for Binge Eating Disorder and
Co-morbid Personality Disorder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211
Social Problem-Solving Plus Psychoeducation . . . . . . . . . . . 212
Are Personality Disorders Truly Resistant to Change? . . . . . . . . 213
Concluding Remarks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 215
12 Severe Psychopathology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 217
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 217
Self-Help Treatments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 218
Bipolar Disorder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 218
Specific Internet-Based Resources for Bipolar Disorder . . . . . . 220
The Dually Diagnosed—Mental Health and Substance Abuse . . . 221
Schizophrenia—Self-Help Internet Forums . . . . . . . . . . . . . 223
Self-Help for Smoking Cessation/Tobacco Use . . . . . . . . . . . 226
Concluding Remarks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 229
13 Medical Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 231
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 231
A Brief Sample of Medical Conditions That Have Self-Help
Resources Available . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 233
Traumatic Brain Injury . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 234
Cognitive Impairment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 234
Cardiac Diseases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 236
Sickle Cell Disease . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 237
Bulimia Nervosa and Binge Eating Disorder . . . . . . . . . . . . 237
Pain, Headache, Breast Cancer, Tinnitus, Physical
Disabilities, and Pediatric Brain Injury . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 238
Diabetes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 240
Obesity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 241
Aftercare Self-Help Interventions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 241
Self-Help Groups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 242
Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 242
Non-specific Self-Help (Complementary Therapy) . . . . . . . . . 243
Current Investigations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 245

Diabetes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 245
Chronic Pain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 245
Part IV Conclusions and Prospects
14 Who Benefits by Self-Help and Why? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 249
A Theory of Relational Competence for Self-Help
in Mental Health . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 250
Definition of Terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 250
Requirements of Relational Competence Theory . . . . . . . . . . 251
Models of the Theory Relevant to SH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 252
Identifying Basic Processes and Contents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 254
Models Derived from Basic Factors, Processes, and Contents . . . 256
Applications of Previous Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 257
Back to Reality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 259
Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 260
Appendix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 263
References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 265
Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 305

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