101. Probiotics & Bioactive Carbohydrates

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101. Probiotics & Bioactive Carbohydrates

 

 

CATEGORY: Diet Nutrition Supplementation – 500 Courses

COURSE NUMBER: 101

FEES: 555/- INR only

CERTIFICATE VALIDITY: Lifetime

CERTIFICATES DELIVERY: In 48 hours

BOOKS/ MANUALS: Pages

Syllabus

1 Introduction: Gastroinstestinal System
and Colorectal Cancer …………………………………………………………. 1
1.1 Introduction …………………………………………………………………. 2
1.1.1 Gastrointestinal Tract …………………………………………. 2
1.1.2 Gut Microbiota as an Organ ………………………………… 3
1.1.3 Gut Microbiota and Health ………………………………….. 5
1.1.4 Colorectal Cancer ………………………………………………. 8
References …………………………………………………………………………….. 12
2 Probiotics and Colorectal Cancer ………………………………………… 15
2.1 Probiotics and Colorectal Cancer ……………………………………. 16
2.1.1 History, Defi nition, and Statistics …………………………. 16
2.1.2 Probiotics as Functional Food ……………………………… 17
2.1.3 Bifi dobacteria ……………………………………………………. 17
2.1.4 Selection Criteria for Probiotic Organism ……………… 18
2.1.5 Probiotics as Health Promoter ……………………………… 18
2.1.6 Probiotics and Gut Microbiota …………………………….. 21
2.1.7 Probiotics and Health …………………………………………. 22
2.1.8 Improvement of Mineral Absorption …………………….. 23
2.1.9 Mechanism of Action of Probiotics
on Colorectal Cancer ………………………………………….. 24
2.1.10 Inactivation of Mutagenic and Carcinogenic
Compounds ……………………………………………………….. 25
References …………………………………………………………………………….. 29
3 Bioactive Carbohydrate: Dietary Fibers
and Colorectal Cancer …………………………………………………………. 35
3.1 History, Defi nition, and Statistics ……………………………………. 36
3.2 Types and Components of Dietary Fiber ………………………….. 38
3.2.1 Dietary Recommendations ………………………………….. 41
3.3 Dietary Fiber and Gut Microbiota …………………………………… 41
3.4 Dietary Fiber and Health ……………………………………………….. 43
3.4.1 Anticancer and Antitumor …………………………………… 43
3.4.2 Anti-infl ammatory ……………………………………………… 45
3.4.3 Immunomodulation ……………………………………………. 46
3.5 Mechanism of Action of Dietary Fiber and Its Fractions
on Colorectal Cancer …………………………………………………….. 47
3.5.1 Physiological Mechanism……………………………………. 47
3.5.2 Cellular Mechanism …………………………………………… 48
References …………………………………………………………………………….. 50
4 Bioactive Carbohydrate: Prebiotics and Colorectal Cancer ….. 57
4.1 History, Defi nition, and Statistics ……………………………………. 58
4.2 Types of Prebiotics ……………………………………………………….. 61
4.2.1 Inulin ……………………………………………………………….. 61
4.2.2 Fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS)…………………………….. 62
4.2.3 Galacto- ligosaccharides (GOS) ……………………………. 62
4.2.4 Lactulose (Lactosucrose) …………………………………….. 64
4.2.5 Lactitol …………………………………………………………….. 65
4.2.6 Fructans (Polydextrose) ………………………………………. 65
4.2.7 Soy-Oligosaccharides (SOS) ……………………………….. 65
4.2.8 Xylo-oligosaccharides (XOS) ……………………………… 66
4.2.9 Isomalto- oligosaccharides (IMO)…………………………. 66
4.2.10 Resistant Starch (RS) and Dextrin (RD) ……………….. 67
4.3 Prebiotics and Gut Microbiota ……………………………………….. 69
4.4 Prebiotics and Health…………………………………………………….. 70
4.4.1 Prebiotics and Cancer …………………………………………. 70
4.4.2 Prebiotics and Lactose Intolerance ……………………….. 70
4.4.3 Prebiotics and Cholesterol …………………………………… 71
4.4.4 Prebiotics and Osteoporosis ………………………………… 72
4.4.5 Cancer ………………………………………………………………. 72
4.4.6 Anti-infl ammatory ……………………………………………… 73
4.5 Mechanism of Action of Prebiotics against
Colorectal Cancer …………………………………………………………. 73
4.5.1 Stimulation of Benefi cial Gut Microbes ………………… 73
4.5.2 SCFA and Lactic Acid ………………………………………… 74
4.5.3 Absorption of Micronutrients by Colon Cells ………… 75
4.5.4 Prebiotics Modulate Xenobiotic Metabolizing
Enzymes …………………………………………………………… 75
References …………………………………………………………………………….. 76
5 Synbiotics and Colorectal Cancer ………………………………………… 83
5.1 History, Defi nition, and Statistics ……………………………………. 84
5.2 Synbiotics and Gut Health ……………………………………………… 85
5.2.1 Anticancer ………………………………………………………… 89
5.2.2 Antiinfl ammation and Immunomodulation ……………. 92
5.3 Mechanism of Action ……………………………………………………. 93
References …………………………………………………………………………….. 93
6 Short-Chain Fatty Acids ……………………………………………………… 97
6.1 Introduction …………………………………………………………………. 98
6.2 Production of Short-Chain Fatty Acids ……………………………. 100
6.2.1 SCFA Determination in Colon …………………………….. 102
6.3 Butyrate Paradox ………………………………………………………….. 102
6.4 Short-Chain Fatty Acids, Gut Microbiota, and Health ……….. 103
6.4.1 Anticancer and Apoptosis ……………………………………. 104
6.4.2 Infl ammation …………………………………………………….. 105
6.5 Metabolic Regulation ……………………………………………………. 106
6.6 Mechanism and Effects of Short-Chain Fatty
Acids on Health ……………………………………………………………. 107
6.6.1 Luminal Effects of SCFA ……………………………………. 107
6.6.2 Absorption and Metabolism of SCFA
by Colonocytes ………………………………………………….. 107
6.6.3 Effect of SCFA on Colonic Blood Flow
and Muscular Activity ………………………………………… 108
6.6.4 Trophic Effects of SCFA (Butyrate and
Propionate) in Maintaining Normal
Colonic Cell Phenotype ………………………………………. 108
6.6.5 Molecular Mechanism of Short-Chain
Fatty Acid in Preventing Colon Cancer …………………. 109
References …………………………………………………………………………….. 111
7 Conclusion ………………………………………………………………………….. 117
Index ………………………………………………………………………………………… 121

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